Meet The Author

Main Uddin is one of the pioneer blogger cum e-marketer from North East India(Assam).He is also a Skilled web Developer and regular columnist for various news portals around the globe.Read More


Hardship of Successful Affiliate Marketing for Pro Bloggers

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It was early days of affiliate marketing when I was busy in 9 to 5 job. Maximum regular readers know that I had left my regular job in 2007 and there after I am in online marketing by doing marketing or web developing works. Since moving over to my new affiliate program, I have signed up about 300 affiliates. But what is interesting is that each month I send over 90% of my affiliate commissions to the same ten or twelve people. A lot of people join affiliate programs for no other reason than to earn an affiliate commission on a product(s) they buy. And this does work with any program, however like most affiliate programs have a minimum payout threshold. So yes you can earn a commission on your own purchase but you would first have to purchase over $100 total since our commission percentage is 40%.

Hardship of Successful Affiliate Marketing for Pro Bloggers

Beside those folks, there are a lot of folks who join because they want to earn money, but they don’t have any experience with affiliate marketing. So I thought I would give you some affiliate marketing tips to help you. In the event you are reading this and know nothing about affiliate marketing before we start with the affiliate marketing tips, here is a basic outline: Affiliate marketing is the practice of a merchant rewarding their affiliates for each visitor or customer brought by the affiliate's marketing efforts. Examples include sites where they pay you a commission for referring a sale. This is usually accomplished by the affiliate putting a merchant’s banner or text link on their website, blog, newsletter or placing links in social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook. When someone clicks on a banner, it places a cookie in his or her computer that allows the merchant to track where the sale came from.

Most merchants pay their affiliates monthly. Some of the web’s largest companies have affiliate programs including eBay, Amazon and Yahoo. With most affiliate marketing programs the buyer must purchase something to generate a commission, but there are merchants who will pay you for a sales lead. This usually requires a person who clicks from your link to the merchant to fill out a lead form with their contact information.

OK – so lets get started with the tips:

1. Select Your Merchants Carefully: 

A lot of affiliates select their merchants on the basis of who pays the highest commission, but like to select based on who has the best reputation and quality product. The next factor I look at is the sell-through rate –which merchants convert better.

2. Integrity Matters: 

Never recommend something you wouldn’t buy yourself. Whether you promote from a blog, email or a website, it has your name on it and you don’t want to promote anything you would not buy or use yourself or something you would not recommend to your mother or your sister. There are plenty of excellent affiliate merchants out there, so you can afford to be very selective.

3.The Niche is Everything: 

You can’t earn money with affiliate marketing if you can’t get traffic to your website or blog. Competition on the Internet is fierce. Someone –or many others cover almost any topic or specialized area you can think of. Some competition is OK. In fact if you pick a niche that has a few competitors, that tells you that the niche is probably viable. But you don’t want to pick a product or a niche that is dominated by large professional affiliate marketers. Some examples of this would include mortgages, credit cards, lawyers, cancer treatments and so on. These areas have affiliate deals that pay huge commissions, but therefore they attract much more competition. You are much better off with a smaller niche. So what’s a small niche? Well one of my in-laws has lived and traveled extensively to Spain. Whereas travel is a huge and highly competitive area, by narrowing it down to one country to write about you would have far less competition. If you really wanted to narrow it further, then you could even specialize in travel to the Costa del Sol region of Spain.

4. Relevance: 

To be a successful affiliate the product you are promoting should be relevant to the content of the site you are promoting from. For example, if you write a blog about Bass fishing then your affiliate links and banners should appeal to bass fishermen. If you have banners for food and wine companies or cruise lines on your bass fishing blog, you may accidently get the occasional click and purchase –but it will be very occasional. Whereas if your links and banners were to a company that sells bass boats, rods and reels and bass fishing guides, they you will see a lot of potential earnings.

5. Avoid Overcrowding:

If success at affiliate marketing could be achieved from throwing up pages of banners - then the world would have lots of millionaires. A site with pages of banners or rows banners stuffed under content has the opposite effect on people. It also has the added bonus of making your site look pretty ugly.

6. A Personal Recommendation Works the Best:

I do use banners on my website and blog and they have their place. But nothing converts to sales better than when I make a personal recommendation. I only do this on products and services that I completely believe in and that I have tried myself. This goes back to the previous tip.

7. Track Results: 

There are literally thousands of merchants with affiliate programs out there. So why would you work with one that isn’t performing? Let me give you an example. I am a big believer in home business owners incorporating their business. So in my books and on my website, I used to recommend Legal Zoom. Two things happened: Sales were slow and after a few months I received a couple of complaints from readers I had referred. Ok – so I looked around and found My Affiliate commissions from My are running double what I earned from Legal Zoom and I haven’t had any complaints. In fact, a few weeks after recommending them, I got an email from a reader praising them and thanking me for recommending them.

8. Use Multiple Merchants for Your Niche: 

You don’t want to overdo this, but don’t put all your eggs into one basket –or merchant. You can get away with three or four merchants and it is easy to spread these all around your site without overcrowding and pestering your readers with offers.

9. Create Original Content: 

There are a lot of article sites where you can get free content to use on your website or blog. There are free articles out there on almost any topic. But beware. Google looks for duplicate content. If they see an article on your website or blog that is identical to the content on others, they will penalize your site in the search results ranking. So always try for original content.

10. Change is good: 

Search engines are always looking for sites with new or changing content. You can build a static site and load it with content and it will get traffic for a time. But after a while, if Google visits your site and does not see any changes, it will not visit very often and eventually you will rank lower.

If you become good at building niche sites and the search engines find them, you can keep doing it. There are affiliate marketers who have dozens of sites. But once you get to that point, go back to each site at least monthly and add or change some of the content so Google and Yahoo will see your site as a place where readers will see up to date content.

Final Words: 

Well – that is our to 10 tips. I hope they helped you. When selecting affiliate merchants to recommend, think of your website or blog as very expensive real estate. You only have so much room for links and banners, so pick them very carefully and track your results at least monthly. If someone isn’t performing, take a minute to figure out why. Maybe its placement or maybe the merchant just does not do a good job of converting sales. If it’s the former you can experiment with placement. But if it’s the latter you should just move on to someone else. In a book, "How to Make A Living Working From Home" has an excellent section on how to do successful affiliate marketing, as well as instruction and information on five other online businesses you can start and run from home.
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Common Bloggers and Proprietary WordPress Development

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The average WordPress user is someone who tends to buy WordPress themes and plugins as turn key solutions for their website development needs. Of course they will have to configure both and they may make some customizations, but they cannot write (or understand) complex code.

Or any at all, for that matter, depending on where they fall on the technical spectrum under “developer”. Basically, anything more technically advanced than dropping in some code snippets or making basic CSS customizations is not possible without outside help.

This is the customer base most WordPress theme and plugin shops are targeting when they create a product. Ironically though, this is the very group who is most likely to be ignorant or misinformed about WordPress development best practices that could negatively impact their project or business.

Such is the case with the practice of proprietary WordPress development.

What is Proprietary WordPress Development?

In a nutshell, proprietary WordPress development is any practice that a) restricts the freedom of a WordPress theme or plugin’s end user beyond the existing limitations of WordPress’ GPL license; or b) uses non-portable code to lock users into a single product or product ecosystem’s continued use.

Types of Proprietary WordPress Development (& What They Mean for You)

If that sounds a little confusing, don’t worry. The sections below will focus on explaining what exactly non-GPL compliant code and non-portable code are and how they can negatively affect end users.

Non-GPL Compliant Code

Before you can understand what non-GPL compliant code is, it’s probably a good idea to understand the main points of the GPL license to begin with. So, what is the GPL license and how does it apply to WordPress, WordPress themes, and WordPress plugins?

GPL stands for General Public License. Any software (WordPress) or derivative products (such as themes and plugins) released under this license provides its users with the following freedoms:

The freedom to run the software for any purpose
The freedom to study how the software works and make any desired changes to it
The freedom to redistribute the software
The freedom to distribute copies of modified versions of the software
It is important to note that there is nothing in this license that prohibits charging for the software–which is how the entire WordPress theme and plugin market is able to exist.

WordPress itself is free of charge by choice; as are the plugins and themes offered through the official repository. Premium WordPress themes and plugins are required to honor the freedoms of the GPL license–which can make it hard (but not illegal) to charge for a freely distributed product–and so tend to charge for easy file access, support, and updates.

(If you’re hazy on how exactly that works then I would recommend reading Chris Lema’s article called What Are You Paying for When You Buy GPL Themes and Plugins?)

Ok, so now that you know what the GPL license is and how it applies to WordPress themes and plugins, how can non-GPL compliant code affect you? And what constitutes non-GPL compliant code in the first place?

Non-GPL compliant code would be anything that restricts the four freedoms above. Code that is compressed or encoded to avoid being read would be the biggest offender here as it would stop you (or anyone you hire) from studying the code, making changes to it, and freely distributing it in any meaningful way.

Thankfully, nearly every single premium WordPress theme shop is 100% GPL compliant. The only major hold-out is Themeforest which offers both 100% GPL and Split GPL licenses. The split license is there to cover elements such as code or code libraries not directly tied to WordPress core functions that might be included in a WordPress theme but are either already licensed under something else or the creators want to retain ownership.

In the case of split GPL licenses you will want to review the restrictions per theme or plugin to be sure you are not prohibited from using the software as you are intending to. In my opinion though, this is rare enough now that it no longer constitutes the biggest problem posed to end users by the practice of proprietary WordPress development. That’s where our next type comes in.

Non-Portable Code

Finally we come to what I see as the biggest problem in the WordPress community in terms of proprietary development: non-portable code. This is when a plugin or theme is designed, either intentionally or unintentionally, to lock a user into the continued use of a single product or product ecosystem. There are three main perpetrators of this: non-portable shortcodes, non-portable themes, and non-portable plugins.

Shortcodes Dependent on Themes

Shortcodes that come with a theme, and which are not dependent on a separate plugin, cannot be ported to a new theme in the future. This practice of packaging shortcodes as part of the theme itself traps end users into either sticking with the theme they have or go through the tedious and time consuming process of removing/replacing all of the shortcodes used in their content. Sometimes, there are no alternate shortcodes available.

Theme Functions and Templates

Ideally, a theme should come with all of its major functionality in the form of a plugin or bundle of plugins. This includes custom templates that once used over and over again will need to either be ported to a new theme or reconstructed by a new developer.

Take a theme that comes with a built in page builder for instance–like Elegant Theme’s Divi. Once you use that theme to create page after page with its custom page builder you cannot switch themes with anything approaching ease. This is one major reason they recently announced they are converting their builder into a theme independent plugin.

Plugins Dependent on Theme Styles

Some plugins, such as the Aesop Story Engine, are dependent on complimentary theme styles to make the plugin work as intended. Right off the bat it means that you need to purchase a theme by the plugin’s author for it to work properly and then you are basically stuck within that family of themes once you’ve used the plugin to create your content. This was one of the reasons the team here at Cohhe recently released the Longform storytelling theme for free. To make a great free plugin actually free to use.

The Aesop Story Engine is far from the only free (or premium) plugin to use this method of directing users to premium products or product families, just one that stood out to me after the release of Longform. In general, these kind of plugins can be hard to spot without acquiring the plugin and testing it yourself. Your best bet is to read as many reviews and articles about your plugin choices as possible before choosing those you will be absolutely dependent on–and then testing them extensively before making any final decisions.

So, What Should the Average WordPress User Do When They Spot Proprietary WordPress Development Practices?

Ideally, avoid it. Non-GPL compliant code is pretty rare now (among trusted and established WordPress theme/plugin creators) and so less likely to cause you problems. Or even come across your radar.

Non-portable code, on the other hand, while frowned upon, is not illegal or even against WordPress licensing. It is against the recommended WordPress development best practices, but there are almost always going to be developers out there who see non-portable code as an easy way to retain customers.

In those cases, you’ll need to follow my advice above and simply be on the lookout for it. Oh, and again, test everything.

If for some reason you cannot avoid using a theme or plugin that practices proprietary WordPress development, there are a few things I’d recommend:

1. Avoid using the features that cannot be ported, even if you have to download a plugin that “duplicates” features

2. If you must buy into a particular product or product family, choose wisely. Pick a theme/plugin shop with an impeccable reputation and enough success to guarantee that they will be around for a while

3. Encourage those developers to bring their products in closer alignment with the recommended WordPress development best practices.

In cases such as the Elegant Themes Divi Builder mentioned above, it seems that they took note of this complaint from their user base and made a decision to align their development practices with the overwhelming consensus of the WordPress community.

As a result, I wouldn’t be surprised to see their customer base grow significantly in 2016.

Have you had any negative experiences as a result of proprietary WordPress development? If so, it would be a great resource for the community here if you took a moment to share your story with us in the comments below.
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Profitable Real Estate Website creation tutorial via infographic

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I have seen face to face internet world for last 15 years but over the past 20 years, the internet has become the most important stream of information that exists for real estate professionals. Honestly, I have created 100+ well established Real Estate Websites in last 15 years. 

How to Build A Real Estate Website

This is where we:
  1. Find our deals
  2. Do our research
  3. Get properties sold
  4. Network with other investors
  5. Find the best service providers
  6. Learn how to improve our businesses
and a lot more…
Considering everything the internet has done for us over the past couple of decades, there is absolutely no reason why a serious real estate professional shouldn’t have at least ONE solid website representing their business.

A well-built website could easily be the most powerful asset you own. Regardless of what your real estate business does. A website is a tool that can:
  1. Build Your Credibility
  2. Position You As An Expert
  3. Represent Your Company Image
  4. Advertise Your Listings
  5. Advertise Your Services
  6. Generate Leads Around The Clock
  7. Reach A Global Audience
  8. Offer Your Business Info To The Public 24/7
  9. Automate Your Communication

Make You Instantly Accessible To Prospects & Customers (without consuming any of your time)
Any single one of these things can have an enormous impact on your business…   and the real kicker is – it’s not expensive. You can literally have any of these things TODAY for less than a couple hundred bucks.

Do You Need A Real Estate Website?

I’ll be honest with you…  do you absolutely need a website for your real estate business?

No – you don’t absolutely need it.

A website won’t solve all your problems BUT, if you want to automate your business, build credibility, provide information to your customers around the clock and make more money in the long run, a great real estate website is an awesome way to do it – and I’m not sure why any serious real estate investors wouldn’t have a website at work in their business (especially considering how easy and inexpensive they are to set up).

I know of a few investors who have never gone through the motions of creating one – but I do think it has things significantly more difficult than they needed to be. It’s really less a question of “Can I live without it?” and more a question of, “What is my business missing out on without it?“

Trust me – a good real estate website is an extremely helpful tool to have at your disposal. That’s why I’m promoting these resources here on the blog, because I know how powerful a good online representation can be for your business (all of my websites have been HUGELY helpful for my buying and selling efforts).

Just one step to your target orientation

Building a website in this industry has been more like participating in an episode of “Fear Factor.” If you’re not careful, your site can become a financial drain and set your online marketing up for imminent failure. But crafty real estate professionals are starting to learn from the rest of the startup world, using clever ways and new technology to spin up and market their websites without breaking the bank. They’re taking advantage of low-cost and free tools combined with creative marketing strategies to dominate online. Take a look at the infographic below and see where you can step up your website game. Let me know what’s working for you in the comments below.

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Content Monetization and doubling Google Adsense Revenue in 5 minutes

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Each and every online content publisher hopes to have Google adsense ads on their website or blog and maximum place the same on their website but very few get success with Google Adsense revenue. The first thing most first-time web publishers do once their website goes live is get their AdSense approval and slap on some ads. Then they wait and wait and wait… once the traffic starts rolling in, they see the AdSense revenue dollars reflect in the account, but usually, it’s more drizzle than rain shower.

The simple fact is that AdSense needs a lot of experimentation and optimisation to get the most out of it—in terms of ad size, colour, content, and placement. If you really want to see a big jump in your revenue instead of incremental gains, you have to get hands-on with your AdSense account and make some changes.

By spending as little as 5 minutes a day optimising your account, you can significantly increase your earnings from your existing traffic. Here’s a helpful infographic that contains all the information you need to get started.
Double AdSense revenue

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Instantly Create an eCommerce Website With Google Blogger

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It had been written by me previously that blogging is a business and still it is big a business whether for business or pleasure, blogging can be a lucrative and fruitful way of spending time on the web. Adding fresh content, adding your company voice to a subject or topic can propel your business and website from relative obscurity to overnight viral success. Blogging is something that many people enjoy and for a business, it is an essential channel for keeping in touch with customers.

Instantly Create an eCommerce Website With Google Blogger

It is also possible to monetise your blog through a number of avenues, including advertising and eCommerce shops. This article will help you set up a blog on Blogger and help you monetise it.

What is Google Blogger?

Blogger is Google’s popular, free online blogging platform used many people to increase their online presence, from writing about to hobbies and interests to creating budding eCommerce empires.

Blogger was developed by Pyra Labs but bought in 2003 by Google. Since then, the free blogging tool has become an integral part of Google’s platform, with posts being published to BlogSpot. It is used by businesses across all industries and sectors to get their blogged material in front of fans, followers and customers.

If you have not used Google’s Blogger tool yet, you may be surprised at what it can offer your business, as well as a profitable sideline with Google Adsense too.

Getting started on Google Blogger

From keeping family and friends updated about your life, to starting your own advice column, discussing the latest politics or to satisfying your lust for a particular topic or subject, a blog is one way of doing it.

For a business, it is also a way for them to share knowledge and information about their products and services, garnering interest and generating sales, as well as showing their thought leadership on their industry through posts. Regular posting can also increase their search engine rankings.

Blogger offers many features and functions, making it a great platform for most businesses. It is also possible to host more than one blog if you feel you want to separate subjects or topics, or have multiple contributors. Bearing in mind it is a free to use platform, many bloggers feel that it offers far more than some of the blogging platforms that users pay for.

To set up a Google Blogger Blog, just follow these three easy steps:

Step 1 – Create an account

If you have a Gmail email account, this is more or less done for you. It is a simple case of connecting your current G+ profile with blogger. If you do not have a Gmail account, the steps are simple and straightforward – Input your name, a connected email address and a password.

Step 2 – Name your blog

You can assign your blog any name at all. You can also create other blogs and have them linked to one account. You can have a separate business and personal blogs, but have them all in one convenient place.

Step 3 – Choose a template

You may feel the number of templates options is limited but, as you blog grows, you'll more than likely realise that simplicity is no barrier to grabbing a broad audience. However, the one factor that many people enjoy about Blogger is that despite its simplicity, it still has an impact online - unusual in today's crowded web space.

Posting on Google Blogger

Once you have completed the above three steps you can begin posting. Blogger uses a WYSIWYG editor (What You See Is What You Get). On one hand, you may have been expecting something more complex but for many people, this simple approach works well. You create the post, format it and post it.

If you feel you need more formatting options, you can use Google Docs to post to your Blogger account, using advanced editing with HTML.

You can also configure your Blogger with a secret email address so that you can email completed blog posts to your blog. If you are not always at your desk, you can make quick updates and so on via your smartphone or tablet too.

It may be simple, but Blogger boasts a range of features:

Pictures and graphics – You can upload photos from your desktop to your blog, choose a basic layout for them, and easily select the perfect size.

Video – Adding YouTube clips is also a possibility, and it's quite straightforward to embed these in.

There are lots of new features being added all the time, such as being able to directly load photos from your mobile too - despite being free to use, it's constantly evolving.

Making money with Google Blogger

As mentioned previously, blogging can provide a good way to sell your products without the expense and maintenance required by a full ecommerce website. If you want to create a standout ecommerce site with Google Blogger, we recommend taking the following steps:

Find the right template

Blogger offers hundreds of templates, so once you feel more comfortable you should explore those available and try to find one that evokes the right look and feel for your eCommerce store.

Describe your products

More than likely this will be your first blog post – a description of your products, including photos. You can even embed a YouTube video if you wish. You may need to update these listings with new posts from time to time, or you may want to add a permalink to the post on your blog’s header menu.

Integrate PayPal

PayPal is one of the world’s most widely used payment systems and so you are missing out on an uncountable amount of business if it is not integrated with your eCommerce Blogger site.

It is actually very straightforward to integrate PayPal into Google Blogger. Once you have signed in to your PayPal account, you need to navigate to My Selling Tools – Selling Online – Update – Selling Preferences – Create New Button. This will create the HTML code required, and you can then simply copy and paste the code into your web page.

Make use of Google AdSense

Although Blogger is not the only platform to offer this, there is a possibility of creating income from your blog with the use of Google AdSense ads. The amount you earn depends on your subject matter as well as the popularity of your blog. Clearly, creating a blog that has frequent visitors, with fresh content posted regularly will make an impact on how much earning potential the blog has.

With your Blogger account, you will see a link to AdSense. You are not automatically subscribed – you can avoid the adverts if you like.

The ads appear down the side of your blog, or in another prominent place depending on your template. That said, they do not obscure or impinge on your content.

Creating and placing AdSense adverts is not complex, and with varying degrees of success, it can be a simple way of creating some very appealing extra revenue. There are examples of popular blogs that make around $500 a month from AdSense adverts. Or, you may be happy with a few extra pounds here and there!

Promote, promote, promote!

As you have set up your free ecommerce site using Google Blogger, what better way to promote your products than with free social media networking sites? Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Google+ can all play a part in your online success, and regular exposure of products on these sites may also help you move up the search engine rankings.

Final Summary

If you want to blog for revenue, there are other ways of making better money, and faster, such as buying your own web space and customising adverts that way. If, however, you are looking for a simple, effective blogging platform that could bring you and your business much-needed exposure, then Blogger could be perfect for you.

Next Steps

If you’re looking to start up an eCommerce blog then why not talk to one of Expert Market’s approved suppliers. By putting your info in the form at the top of the page, we can match you with the companies best able to meet your needs. Here I can help you in this issue either free or premium. Get in touch.
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Cross-Browser Compatibility and HTML & CSS Validation

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We all know the importance of checking our web pages with multiple browsers, especially when we are designing a new layout for a website. This is the case even if we are writing validated standards-compliant code. The number of extant browsers we need to check with are enormous: Internet Explorer ("IE") 6 to 11, the current version of Firefox, the current version of Chrome (or Vivaldi, which uses the same code), the current version of Safari, and so on. And then there are the different platforms: Windows, Macintosh (Mac), Linux, etc. The problem for most people is that multiple versions of certain browsers cannot co-exist with each other, the most notable example of this is IE for Windows. Unless you happened to have multiple computers, this presents a certain difficulty for the average webmaster. This article suggests some ways for you to run multiple versions of multiple browsers on one computer.

Note that this article is written primarily from the point of view of a person using Windows (the majority of people reading this article), although it does address the issue of Mac browsers and Linux browsers as well.

Firefox and Seamonkey

It's possible for different versions of Firefox and Seamonkey to all co-exist on the same machine.
If you did not already know, Mozilla Firefox and Seamonkey use the same Gecko rendering engine. As such, if you have one of these browsers, you probably don't need to install the other to test your site.
It is easy to make multiple versions of Firefox and Seamonkey co-exist with each other. Install them into separate directories and create a different profile for each browser you install. (For non-Firefox users, this browser allows you to create different profiles so that you can store different settings for different situations.)
To create a different profile for Firefox, simply start Firefox with the following command line:
"c:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Firefox\firefox" -ProfileManager
Once you've finished creating profiles, you will want to create shortcuts (Windows terminology) to run the different versions of the browser. This makes life easier for you: you can simply click the appropriate icon for the different versions, and it will load using the correct profile. To specify which profile the browser is to load, put the profile name after the "-P" option.
For example, if you have created a profile named "currentfirefox", your command for running the current version of Firefox with that profile may look like:
"C:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Firefox\firefox.exe" -P currentfirefox
Similarly, your command to run the Firefox with a profile called "oldversion" may look like:
"c:\Program Files (x86)\Mozilla Firefox\firefox" -P oldversion
And so on.
I'm not sure that you really need all the different implementations of the Gecko engine to test, though. I personally only test my sites with latest version of Firefox since my site design tends to be simple.

Chrome, Vivaldi, Opera and Safari

Google's Chrome browser, the Vivaldi browser and the current version of Opera all use the same engine. In general, you can expect that the vast majority of people who uses the Chrome browser will be using the latest version, since that browser automatically updates itself whether you want it or not. As such, I tend not to bother to test my sites with earlier versions of Chrome.
You can get Chrome from Google's Chrome site and Vivaldi from Since these browsers use the same engine, if a site works with one browser, it should probably work with the other.
In addition, the Safari web browser share a lot of code in common with both Chome, Vivaldi and Opera, since all four ultimately derive their engine from yet another browser called Konqueror. This similarity will diverge over time, since the engine for Safari is being developed separately from the other three. If you are feeling lazy, you can probably get away with testing under any one of the four for now, although if you really want to be thorough, you probably should install Safari in addition to one of the other three. All four browsers can coexist with each other on the same computer.

Internet Explorer

For most sites, IE users probably comprise the majority of visitors, despite the inroads made by the other web browsers. Now that Microsoft has made Internet Explorer automatically update to the latest version (via Windows Update), chances are that more and more of your visitors will be using the latest version.
Unfortunately, in spite of this, there are still a few users sitting on old versions of the browser. For example, IE 6 is still being used by some people running Windows XP. Although this number is dwindling rapidly, at the time I write this, there are still enough visitors using it for some websites that webmasters feel obliged to continue to support it. (The actual percentage varies from site to site, depending on the target audience of each site.)
My experience in coding and, both of which depend heavily upon Cascading Style Sheets ("CSS") for layout, is that IE 6 and 7 are very different animals from the other browsers or even the later incarnations of IE. Contrary to what you may expect, what works in IE 11, Vivaldi, Firefox and Safari will not necessarily work in IE 6 and 7. IE 6 has numerous bugs in its engine, causing sites that are correctly coded to break under that browser. In other words, if you want to support IE 6 and 7, you need to have those browsers installed somewhere so that you can test with them. You can't just assume that your site will look fine in those old browsers.
Unfortunately, you can't install more than one version of IE. The bulk of IE's code does not get installed into its own subdirectory (or folder) but into Windows' system directory. Although there have been unofficial solutions available for some time among the webmaster community for installing different versions of IE into the same Windows installation, there are various peculiarities in the end result, and the IE versions you get from that behave slightly differently from the standard versions when installed normally. As such, I don't really recommend those "solutions". Instead, if you feel you really need to test with old versions of IE, you should probably try one of the following methods.

Method 1: How to Run More than One Version of Internet Explorer on a Single Machine: Using a Virtual Machine

The official Microsoft-sanctioned method of testing with multiple versions of IE on one computer is to install a virtual machine.
Loosely speaking, virtual machine software allow you to run another copy of Windows within your existing version of Mac OS X, Windows, Linux, FreeBSD or whatever. The virtual machine software pretends to be a new computer, and Windows gets installed into a small space on your hard disk which the software uses to mimic an entire drive.
Microsoft provides pre-activated copies of Windows with various versions of IE in virtual machines free of charge to web developers who need to test their sites in Internet Explorer. The pre-activated Windows expires periodically, so you will need to download a fresh copy from time to time.
You will also need to install one of the supported PC virtual machine software that can run those pre-activated Windows machines. For Windows users, this is either Virtual PC, VirtualBox or VMWare Player, all of which are free, and can be found on the Free PC Virtual Machines and Virtual Machines page. Mac OS X users can use either VirtualBox (which is free), Parallels Desktop (a commercial program) or VMWare Fusion (also a commercial program). Linux users can use VirtualBox.  
Once you've installed both the virtual machine software, and the virtual machine from Microsoft, all you have to do is to run it. This will give you a copy of the appropriate version of Windows with a matching version of IE, which you can use to surf to your website to test it.
Note: Microsoft has terminated its support of Windows XP on April 2014, so it's possible that they will stop providing virtual machines containing XP and Internet Explorer 6 eventually. If that's the case, it will no longer be possible for you to test IE 6 unless you have your own copy of Windows XP. I personally hope that when we reach that date, the number of IE 6 users will be so small that it's no longer even necessary for anyone to bother to test with that desperately obsolete version. You will still be able to test with IE 7 and above though, at least until the version of Windows that comes with those versions stops being supported.

Method 2: How to Run Two or Three Versions of IE on One Machine By Dual or Multi-Booting

This method is not recommended unless you have special reasons (other than testing websites) for needing to dual-boot or multi-boot. It is more technically demanding, disruptive, time-consuming and uses more hard disk space.
For the technically inclined, another way to run two versions of IE on a single machine is to install multiple versions of Windows on that machine, each in its own partition. In plain English, this means that you need to divide your hard disk into (at least) two sections, called "partitions". Then install different versions of Windows into different partitions. You may have to modify your Windows boot menu to support all of them, or use a third party boot manager. (Sorry for the vagueness in this paragraph, but I don't envisage many people to actually need to use this method, and those who do, already know how to do all this.)

How to Test Mac Browsers

Nowadays, you don't actually need a Mac to test Mac browsers, since the default Mac web browser, Safari, and alternative browsers like Firefox and Vivaldi have Windows equivalents.
Having said that, I'm not 100% sure if browsers display things exactly the same way in Windows as in Mac OS X, even if they are the same brand. That is, I'm not sure if (say) Safari for Windows displays things identically with Safari for Mac OS X. However, I think that for the most part, where my sites are concerned, the way they render things is sufficiently alike that I don't need to bother with specially getting a Mac just to test the sites.
Before you ask, although there are things such as free Mac emulators, which are software that run in Windows but pretend to be a Mac and thus can run Mac software, they are not particularly useful from a webmasters' point of view. The working Mac emulators tend to emulate the old obsolete Macs, not modern ones.
In any case, as I said earlier, you shouldn't need a Mac to develop a website that works on it. Just check that your website has valid code and test your website in the Windows versions of Safari, Firefox and Vivaldi, and you'll probably be fine. If, however, your site requires absolute precision in the positioning of its text, images and other elements, and you want to make sure it looks correct on a Mac, you will have no choice but to get a real Mac to test it on.

Testing Linux Browsers

One of the easiest ways to test your site under Linux is to run Linux from a CD or DVD. There are numerous Linux "live" CDs around; see the Free Linux LiveCD Distributions page for a list of them. These allow you to simply boot your machine from the DVD/CD directly into Linux without having to install anything onto your hard disk. Essentially, all you have to do is to download an ISO (which is just an image of the DVD or CD) of the Linux distribution, burn it to your CD or DVD, put it in your CD or DVD drive, and restart your computer. The computer boots from the media and runs Linux without installing anything on your hard disk. From the DVD (or CD), you can run many Linux applications, including the Linux version of Firefox and Konqueror.
If you are feeling lazy, and you have installed an emulator or a virtual machine, as mentioned above, you don't even need to burn the ISO to a CD. You can simply use the virtual machine to boot the ISO — your copy of Linux will then run in the virtual machine. Or, if you prefer, you can also directly install Linux into the virtual machine.
Yet another alternative is to install Linux on your hard disk, using one of the many free Linux distributions around. You can set it up so that it co-exists with Windows (ie, dual-boot). Make sure you have space for a new partition on your hard disk, install it and you're done.
The default browser that comes on many Linux distributions is Firefox (although not necessarily so). However, you will find that even though Firefox tries to render your page the same way under all platforms, the fonts available under Linux are different from those available on Windows. If you don't code your fonts in a cross-platform compatible way, your site may end up being rendered with an ugly font. For example, if your site only specifies "Arial" or "Impact" or some Windows-specific font, since these fonts are not available by default under non-Windows systems, your site will be rendered using either the default font or some other font that the browser thinks matches what you've specified.
If you don't want to bother to run Linux to test, be sure that you at least:
  1. Test your pages under Firefox for your platform.
  2. Specify alternative fonts for your web pages. For example, don't just select a font like "Arial" in your design. Specify alternatives as well, should Arial not be available, like "Helvetica" and a final fallback, something generic like "sans-serif". If you don't know how to do this, please see my article on choosing fonts for more information.

Whether you design your web page using a visual web editor 
 like Dreamweaver or KompoZer, or you code HTML directly with a simple text editor, the generally recommended practice is to validate it after you finish designing it.
This article discusses what validation means, points you to some of the free tools that you can use, and deals with its limitations and the problems that a new webmaster may face.
Note: if you are not sure what HTML and CSS mean, please read What are HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP and Perl? Do I Need to Learn Them to Create a Website? before continuing. Otherwise you'll be completely lost here since I assume you at least know what these terms mean.

What does Validating HTML or CSS Mean?

For those unfamiliar with the term, "validating" a page is just a jargon-filled way of referring to the use of a computer program to check that a web page is free of errors.
In particular, an HTML validator checks to make sure the HTML code on your web page complies with the standards set by the W3 Consortium, the organisation ("organization" in US English) that issues the HTML standards. There are various types of HTML validators: some only check for errors, while others also make suggestions about your code, telling you when it might lead to (say) unexpected results.
The W3 Consortium has its own online validator which you can use for free. It may be found at:
CSS validator checks your Cascading Style Sheet in the same manner. That is, it will check that it complies with the CSS standards set by the W3 Consortium. There are a few which will also tell you which CSS features are supported by which browsers (since not all browsers are equal in their CSS implementation).
Again, you can get free validation for your style sheets from the W3 Consortium:
There are numerous other validators around, both free and commercial, focusing on different aspects of your web page. You can find a list of free ones (including specialised validators like those that check your code for accessibility) from the Free HTML Validators, CSS Validators, Accessibility Validators page at

Why Validate Your HTML and CSS Code?

There are a number of reasons why you should validate your page.

It Helps Cross-Browser, Cross-Platform and Future Compatibility

  1. Although you may be able to create a web page that appears to work on your favourite browser (whatever that may be), your page may contain HTML or CSS errors that do not show up with that browser due to an existing quirk or bug. Another person using a different browser that does not share that particular bug will end up viewing a page that does not show up correctly. It is also possible that later versions of your browser will fix that bug, and your page will be broken when people use its latest incarnation.
    Coding your pages so that it is correct without errors will result in pages that are more likely to work across browsers and platforms (ie, different systems). It is also a form of insurance against future versions of browsers, since all browsers aim towards compliance with the existing HTML and CSS standards.

Search Engine Visibility

  1. When there are errors in a web page, browsers typically try to compensate in different ways. Some may ignore the broken elements while others make assumptions about what the web designer was trying to achieve. The problem is that when search engines obtain your page and try to parse them for keywords, they will also have to make certain decisions about what to do with the errors. Like browsers, different search engines will probably make different decisions about those errors, resulting in certain parts of your web page (or perhaps even the entire page) not being indexed.
    The safest way to make sure the search engines see the page you want them to see is to present them an error-free page. That way, there is no dispute about which part of your page comprises the content and which the formatting code.

Limitations: What Validation Does Not Do

Validating your web page does not ensure that it will appear the way you want it to. It merely ensures that your code is without HTML or CSS errors.
If you are wondering what the difference is, an analogy from normal human language will hopefully make it clear. Let's take this sentence "Chris a sandwich ate" which is grammatically incorrect when used in a non-poetic context. It can be fixed by simply reversing the order of the last two words so that the sentence reads "Chris ate a sandwich".
But what happens if you write a sentence that says "Chris ate a pie" when you meant that he ate a sandwich? Syntactically, the sentence is correct, since all the elements of the sentence, subject ("Chris"), verb ("ate") and object ("a pie") are in the right order. Semantically, however, the sentence describes a different thing from what you meant.
HTML and CSS validators are designed to catch the first type of error, exemplified by the grammatical error of my first sentence. So if you write HTML code that has (say) the wrong order, the HTML validator will spot it and tell you. However, it cannot catch errors of the second kind, where you get the spelling and order and all other technical aspects correct, but the code you used does not match the meaning you intended.
Ensuring that your code does what you want it to do requires you to actually test it in a web browser. Depending on the complexity of your code, you may even want to test it with different browsers to make sure that your site looks the same in all of them, since it's possible that you are using features of HTML and CSS that are only implemented in some browsers but not others.

What to Do If You Don't Know HTML and CSS

If you have designed your site using a visual web editor, and are not familiar with HTML and CSS, you will face an additional problem.
While running the validator and getting it to validate your page itself will not be an issue (since the W3 Consortium's validator is not only free, it doesn't even have to be installed to be used), the problem comes when the validator checks your page and tells you that there are errors.
If you have no knowledge of HTML and CSS, you will probably have some difficulty figuring out what those errors mean, whether they are serious, and how to fix them.
Although there is no perfect solution to this, you are not completely without resources.
  1. If you are using an editor like Dreamweaver, Microsoft's Expression Web, KompoZer or BlueGriffon, you can usually assume that the code they produce on their own is valid. From my limited experience (mainly creating demo sites for the purpose of writing tutorials or reviews for, these four editors seem to create correct HTML and CSS code.
    This means that if you get errors when you validate your page, the problems must come from elsewhere. If you have inserted code that you obtained from a website (such as if you have added a Youtube video to your page), it's possible that the code is the source of the error message.
    Alternatively, if you have modified the code on the page manually, the error may have crept in there.
    Having said that, sometimes the error is benign. For example, if you have added XHTML code to a page that has HTML, you may or may not get validation errors since you are mixing 2 different HTML families that have slightly different conventions. As far as I can tell, for the most part, this kind of error does not cause any problem for either browsers or search engines.
  2. Another way is to search the Internet for the solution. For example, you can copy and paste the error message given by the validator into a search engine, and see if there are any websites out there that talk about this particular error. This may not be as fantastic an idea as it first appears, since their solution may be too general to be helpful for your specific problem, unless the error message is the result of your pasting code from some popular source (like Youtube or something of that level of popularity).
  3. A third way is of course to ask someone, whether it's someone you know personally, or someone on the Internet. This solution also has its own issues, since you may get a solution that creates a bigger mess of your page than it had in the first place. It all boils down to their competence and willingness to spend enough time figuring out the problem.
  4. Finally, you can also ignore the problem. If you want to do this, you should test your web page in as many web browsers you can to make sure the error message does not diagnose a problem that causes visible issues. If you find that your site seems to work fine in spite of the error, you may decide to just ignore it and hope for the best.
    Although this solution is not ideal, you may be forced to take it if you can't find an alternative. It's not ideal because the error may bite you later when you least expect it, for example, when there's a new version of some web browser that chokes on the bad code. It may also cause problems in a non-visible manner, such as in the way the search engines index your page.

How Often Should I Validate?

Some people validate every time they make a modification to their pages on the grounds that careless mistakes can occur any time. Others validate only when they make a major design change.
I always validate the template for my pages when I make a major design change. I try to validate my pages each time I make modifications, although I must admit that I sometimes forget to do so (with the occasional disastrous consequence; Murphy's Law doesn't spare webmasters).
I find that having an offline validator helps to make sure that I remember to validate: having to go online just to validate my pages tends to make me put off validation till later, with the result that it'll occasionally get overlooked. For those not familiar with the terminology I use, when I say "offline validator" I simply mean a validator that I can download and install in my own computer so that I can run it on my pages without having to go to the W3 Consortium's website. You can find offline validators on the free validators page I mentioned earlier, that is,
The HTML Tidy validator (listed on that page) is available for numerous platforms (including Linux, Mac, Windows, etc) and has proven helpful to many webmasters the world over.

Final words: 

It's a good idea to test your site with multiple versions of multiple browsers, particularly if you plan to do anything fancy with style sheets on your site. This doesn't mean that you have to support all browsers — for example, the pages on do not work with very old browsers. However, when you are able to test your pages this way, you can at least reduce the number of problems your pages have with the different browsers. The tips in this article allow you to test with multiple browsers even if you have only one machine. As I mentioned above, it's generally a good idea to validate your web page. It will point you to errors that may affect how your website is understood by web browsers and search engines. Even if you are not familiar with HTML and CSS, there are still some ways you can deal with the errors that you discover from validating your page.
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Easier Methods to Get PerfectTech Resume for Entrepreneurs

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The era is based on technology and global market depends overcome of technology. There are plenty of examples online, and some built into word. Pick something that is a single page- you are writing a resume, not a CV, and recruiters don't have the time or patience to hear your whole life story.

Get PerfectTech Resume for Entrepreneurs 

 “A powerful resume should leap off the page saying, ‘Me! I’m the one you want to hire!’” advises software engineer Gayle Laakmann McDowell in her book The Google Resume: How to Prepare for a Career and Land a Job at Apple, Microsoft, Google, or Any Top Tech Company. She says that every line in these documents should have value and contribute to convincing the employer to hire you. That said, below are 15 tips from McDowell and others on creating the perfect tech resume.

1. Focus on accomplishments: Focus less on your job duties in your last job and more on what you actually accomplished, with an emphasis on tangible results (increased app sales revenues by 20 percent, developed software that reduced costs by 10 percent, etc.).

2. Quantify results: Avoid saying general things like “improved customer satisfaction,” “increased company profits,” or “reduced number of bugs.” Instead, provide quantifiable metrics that demonstrate how your work helped your company save money, reduce costs, improve customer service, etc.

3. Target your resume: Gone are the days of sending one generic resume to hundreds of companies. You should target each resume to the specific job listing and company.

4. Don’t get too technical: Technical terms, sales and marketing slang, and acronyms that are commonly used at one company may be like a foreign language to recruiters or hiring managers at other companies. Make your resume universally understood by using industry-recognized terminology and explaining anything that recruiters might find confusing.

5. Be concise: We’ve all heard the stats about hiring managers tossing resumes that have just one typo. Although tech companies tend to be more forgiving, that’s no reason to submit a grammatically incorrect, misspelled, and otherwise poorly presented resume.

6. Be clear, and structure your resume well: Try to think like a recruiter when creating your resume. Provide the information recruiters want so that they don’t throw your resume in the trash pile. For example, if you worked as a software engineer at a top company such as Microsoft or Intel, stress the company name rather than your job title, since that will impress the recruiter the most.

7. Ditch the “objective”:  Use an Objective in your resume only if you are straight out of college or want to bring attention to the fact that you want to transition to a new role (for example, moving from a position in software engineering to one in sales). An Objective can also be a drawback because your stated job interest (mobile software developer) might convince the recruiter that you’re not interested in other lucrative and rewarding positions (user interface engineer, Web developer, etc.) he or she needs to fill.

8. Don’t be vague in your “summary”:  If you use a Summary section, be sure that it’s filled with key accomplishments (backed up by hard numbers), not vague pronouncements about your detail-oriented personality, strong work ethic, etc. Some people rename this section “Summary and Key Accomplishments.”

9. Think accomplishments over duties: Work experience is a key component of your resume, but it should not feature a comprehensive list of all the jobs that you’ve held (especially if you’ve worked in the industry for years or had many jobs). List the most important positions that will show the hiring manager that you’re qualified for the new job. Provide the largest amount of detail for your current or most recent job (or the one that is most applicable to showing that you’re qualified for the new position). Be sure to list your accomplishments, rather than just job duties. Again, think about what the hiring manager wants to see to convince him or her to call you in for an interview.

10. Minimize your “education” as you gain experience: Professional experience matters more than education in the tech industry, but it’s important that the Education section effectively conveys your educational background. If you have a nontraditional degree that recruiters may not be familiar with, be sure to offer a one- or two-sentence description of the major. Recent graduates should list their GPA only if it’s at least 3.0 on a 4.0 scale (of course, omitting your GPA may raise a red flag with the recruiter). Recent graduates should also list any college activities or awards that they believe will help them land the job, but they shouldn’t list everything they did while in school. Finally, the rule of thumb is that the Education section shrinks as you gain experience. Eventually, it will simply list the bare essentials such as university name, location, dates attended, degree earned, etc.

11. Don’t forget the skills: Tech workers should be sure to include a Skills section on their resume. This section should list software expertise, programming languages, foreign languages, and other applicable skills, but it’s a good idea to skip basic skills (such as Microsoft Word) that many applicants have. The key is to list skills that will help you land the job.

12. Go big, and keep the little for later: When considering what to include on your resume, focus on the “big,” and save the “little” for the job interview. This means you should detail big, eye-catching accomplishments such as new products and technologies that you helped develop, major employers (such as Google or Amazon) that you worked for, major customers that you interacted with, and increases in sales, profits, or productivity that you contributed to. Be ready to provide the details regarding these accomplishments and background information during the actual interview.

13. Use keywords: At its employment web site, Microsoft advises applicants to detail on their resume how their experiences (leadership roles, work duties, school activities, etc.) helped them to grow as a person and as a professional. This is a good approach, since you always want to show that you are evolving as a person and eager to learn new skills. Also, use keywords that match those listed in the job announcement. For example, if you’re applying for a position in e-marketing and search engine optimization, then your resume should include these terms. This will help you get noticed by resume-scanning software and advance past the first screening stage.

14. Use your name: If you send your resume as an attachment, don’t name it “resume.doc” or “resume.pdf.” That’s the surest way for your resume to get lost among the thousands of other submissions. Instead, name the file starting with your last name, then your first name, then the date. And add the job identification number if one is available.

15. Use tools and follow the directions: Some companies such as Microsoft offer resume-building tools for job applicants at their web sites. These tools will help you determine what you should and should not include in your resume. Be sure to use these tools, if offered. And follow instructions to the letter. Google, for example, requires applicants to submit their resumes in PDF, Microsoft Word, or text formats. It also requires that all application materials for U.S. jobs be submitted in English.

Final Words: 

My final suggestion, just get somebody super honest to review your resume. Or better yet, get more than one somebody to review your resume. They should check for relevance, spelling, syntax, etc. It's preferable that you choose somebody who also knows you fairly well, because they can sometimes remember gems that you've forgotten to include. Take their feedback as a gift; if they are tough than they probably want to help you succeed. So, don't forget to say thank you!
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