Major 12 queries are asked to valuate a website on programmed software via which it is made

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We have already discussed a lots of valuation method of website and blog either professional or personal.Here today I am trying to short listed the queries about a blog or website ,when it is being taken under valuation process due to factor of programmed software.

[caption id="attachment_1418" align="aligncenter" width="640"]Major 12 queries are asked to valuate a website on programmed software via which it is made Main Uddin ::Major 12 queries are asked to valuate a website on programmed software via which it is made[/caption]

Here is the Major 12 queries are asked to valuate a website on programmed software via which it is made.

1. Is there any development software (i.e.graphics tools,HTML/programming tools)

2. Does site  include JSP(Java server pages )programs

3. Does the site own rights or licences to the software that is used  to run and maintain the site

4. Is the right exclusive

5. Does the software  licence expire at some point?If so ,what is the possibility of it's renewal

6. Can it be renewaed on the existing terms and conditions

7. Is the software easily maintainable and upgradable

8. What are the limitations of the software determine the availability of experts who know the software and can fix / troubleshoot it

9. Can the software run on more  than one server  (physically and legally)

10. Is there a database associated with software

11. Determine the integrity and format of the database

12. Rights included with the site (hosting,acces)

Conclusion:-

What kind of rights are included in the price.Does the price include T1 acces rights (and the equipment for such acces).Wheather the site has any amount of pre-allocated bandwidth or storage space .Can the site be moved without negative impact on such rights.So valuation process is not simple ,it takes large number of complex calculation during the process going on.
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Top 8 technological factors to valuate professional website or blog

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Technological factors of a website or blog covers software  and hardware which are used to create the blog or website.These two things are being maintained the performance of targeted blog or website. Today ,I am trying to find  out the major factors related to software and hardware which are effective to valuate a website or blog.

[caption id="attachment_1415" align="aligncenter" width="640"]Top 8 technological factors to valuate professional website or blog Image credit to Aprna Roy :: Top 8 technological factors to valuate professional website or blog[/caption]

Recently a survey has been carried out by the Perfect BloggersTech about website valuation factors on the basis of hard ware and software.The survey has listed Top 8 technological factors to valuate professional website or blog . Check  out them bellow-


1. Is there any hardware included when the Website is bought?

2. What type of hardware is included in the sale/purchase price?

3. Does it include the server and other necessary ancillary hardware? 

4. Does the site reside on it's own server ?

5. Is the available hardware enough to maintain the web site (i.e. scanners ,digital cameras)?

6. Wheather sufficiant number of technical persons available in the surrounding locality,

7. who can provide service to the hardware ,if necessary (in case the purchaser lacks the technical knowledge or skills)determine the speed of the web-servers connection to the Internet .

8. Whether it is necessary to engage  a consultant to look at the actual  hardware.

Conclusion:-

Website or blog valuation can give an idea to the bloggers and webmasters of their performance on respective field which can help to re decide the future plan about software and hardware parts of the blog or website.
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Top 3 basic criteria to validate and valuation finder algorithms of website

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Every professional blogger and webmaster has used to check the various tools to validate and find valuation of own blog or website each and every day.Here is the question rise why bloggers and webmasters do that ? The reply is very simple as they try to feel good for their performance in their respective blog or websites.

[caption id="attachment_1411" align="aligncenter" width="600"]Top 3 basic criteria to validate and valuation finder algorithms of website Top 3 basic criteria to validate and valuation finder algorithms of website[/caption]

Today , I am trying to find out the basic concept of the website and blog valuation algorithms.Here is the Top 3 basic criteria to validate and valuation finder algorithms of website.

i. Total number of pages at site :

Even though a Website may not have high search engine rankings, having a lot of pages is surely at advantage in terms of teriffic.This generaly comes from search engines that have indexed more than just the home page of the site .

ii. Number of original pages :

      a.consider actual pages Vs egi generated pages- calculate the between them.

         b. Distinguish among the organised, unorganized and simple pages those are  
          created for the website.

         c. Frequencies of the contents changes in view of traffics flash.

         d. Provider(s) of the contents and their abilities.

         e. Contents generation procedures.

         f. Self generated ,user generated or admin added contents.

iii.Total numbers of  graphics at the site in active:-

        a.  Numbers of active graphics

        b. original contents

        c. copyright bought contents

        d.guests contents.

Conclusion:-

A lots of others factors also are being taken in valuation process but these are the main factors, Top 3 basic criteria to validate and valuation finder algorithms of website.
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Professional bloggers and writers' criteria of writing an Effective Call-to-Action

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Professional bloggers and writers' criteria of writing an Effective Call-to-Action.You did it! A reader has read your quality, informative article from title to conclusion. Now what?
Did you provide an effective call-to-action (CTA) in your Resource Box? If you didn’t, you may be missing out on an incredible opportunity to foster a relationship with your readers and drive traffic to your blog or website.
writers' criteria of writing an Effective Call-to-Action
A CTA is a pitch to your readers to urge or motivate them to take immediate action. When effectively used, a CTA can generate incredible results and increase your return on time investment.
Use these tips to write an effective and alluring call-to-action!
Desire – Readers are motivated by an empathetic link. Consider what problem they want to solve or what desire they want to achieve. Lead your CTA with it.
Convenience – Clearly prescribe a product or a service that solves the reader’s problem or helps them achieve their goal.
Incentive – Encourage your reader to act by providing an enticement, e.g. a discount, a free gift, or a free download. To make it timely, use urgent language like “act now” to add a sense of immediacy.
Simplicity – Often, the simplest design produces the best results. Succinctly tell your reader what you want them to do in one direct action.
Link – A combination of 1 link in anchor text and 1 URL link often produces the best results. It also ensures your original URL will be preserved should your article be picked up by another publisher.
Next, watch out for these top 3 call-to-action blunders.
Premature Placement – Many experts will place their CTA too early, i.e. add the CTA to their summary or in their article body. Recall that your article should be non-self-serving and entirely information-based to benefit your reader. Your CTA belongs in your article’s Resource Box, because it’s very nature is promotional. “Give” in your article and “take” in your Resource Box.
Negative Blunders – Attitude is contagious. A negative CTA could result in a negative reaction. A positive CTA is more inclined to result in a positive reaction. Ensure your CTA conveys a positive message.
Pesky Keywords – Cluttering the CTA with a cloud of keywords, a list of websites, or advertising every product hoping to ensnare as many readers as possible will weaken your credibility. Save keywords for the Keywords field of your article submission form.
Finally, as obvious as it may seem, don’t forget to include a call-to-action! Don’t miss out on this great opportunity to drive traffic to your blog or website and increase your return on time investment. Give your readers a route to continue their journey with you by including a finely-tuned call-to-action in the Resource Box of all your articles.
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Professional bloggers and writers view on write like you speak

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Engage Your Audience and Build Your Credibility
Verbal communication is often considered the most advantageous form of communication because of non-verbal cues. From hand gestures to eye movement to the tone of your voice, you are able to achieve a higher level of engagement without saying a word.Professional bloggers and writers view on write like you speak.
Professional bloggers and writers view on write like you speak How can writing compete with that?
Descriptive language and other tools can certainly make up for the absence of verbal cues – that’s why they exist! However, these tools are often overlooked in articles and exchanged with the dry, shriveled tones of formal language.
Here’s how you can provide the same level of engagement that verbal communication achieves with the written word.
Formal vs. Informal
First, it’s important to understand formal and informal writing. Informal writing is marked by casual, familiar language. It employs creativity and is chock full of originality. It turns sturdy, reliable crackers into a delightful cheese and wine party attended by such a diverse group of characters, you dare not blink for fear you might miss something.
Let’s take a look at a snippet of a formal pasty recipe:
Boil 1 cup of water. Add 1 cup of shortening. Stir; place in refrigerator to cool. Combine 3 cups of flour with 1 teaspoon of salt…
Sure, it’s straight to the point, but if you want to exert your credibility as the leading authority on pasty making, this isn’t going to make the cut. You’re nowhere in the piece! You need to invoke your personality into the piece with description, detail, and your own tips or insights to engage your audience.
Bring 1 cup of water to a boil; for you newbies, that’s when it’s bubbling. Then turn down the heat, just a tad, and add 1 cup of shortening. Stir until it’s evenly melted and translucent. Place the shortening and water mixture in the fridge to cool for roughly 45 minutes. Let it develop a waxy sheet at the top; it doesn’t need to harden all the way, just so it’s cool enough to work with. Meanwhile, take 3 cups of flour and add 1 teaspoon of salt; mix it thoroughly…
How to Write Like You Speak
One tactic that will help you achieve a more conversational style: talk to yourself! It may sound odd, but everyone talks to themselves from time-to-time to problem solve and to develop new ideas. Interview yourself by using these 5 steps to incorporate a conversational tone in your articles:
Consider your method to record your conversation. If you’re a talker, use a voice recorder. If you are more comfortable with a writing implement (pen and paper, computer, etc.), use it.
Consider a topic and then imagine you’re having a discussion with someone. Before we launch into the discussion points, think about who this “someone” is and how much information they already know about your topic. You can use a persona or have a character in mind to help direct your discussion.
Consider your discussion points: the facts. In your own words, present the facts or the meat of the discussion. Be direct and be descriptive with every fact by providing your own insights in your own words.
Based on the persona or character you’re imagining, consider what questions they would ask or points of contention, as well as what will continue to hold their interest. Avoid editing yourself; let your thoughts move fluidly like you would in a 1:1 conversation. If you feel like relating a memory pertinent to the conversation or perhaps something reminds you of another facet of your niche, let it flow and keep recording or writing.
After your “interview” is over, review your results. Now you can trim anything that is superfluous or irrelevant and break up discernible themes that will stand alone in an article. Incorporate these results in your next set of articles!
Invoke yourself into your articles by using discussion as a tool – even if it’s a discussion with yourself! Discussion can unlock tons of ideas and help you create engaging articles to provide unique, one-of-a-kind insights to build your credibility and provide engaging content.

Conclusion:-
Do you use this technique to create engaging articles? Share your suggestions or questions in the comments section below!
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Writers view on top punctuation howlers is the semicolon

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Professional bloggers and web page Writers view on top punctuation howlers is the semicolon
Is it a Colon? Is it a Comma? No, it’s a Semicolon!
Do you feel inclined to join two independent clauses with – GASP – a comma?
Stop the presses! This isn’t a job for a comma; this is a job for the semicolon.
Writers view on top punctuation howlers is the semicolon The Villainous Comma Splice
In case you’re not familiar with the comma splice, here’s the lowdown on this common error. A comma splice occurs when an author joins two complete sentences. For example:
The Comma Splice was last seen fleeing the crime scene, Super Semicolon was hot in pursuit. (Wrong)
A semicolon can be deployed to save the sentence:
The Comma Splice was last seen fleeing the crime scene; Super Semicolon was hot in pursuit. (Correct)
You may be thinking: “Why not just use a period?” When periods and commas can usually handle the job, the semicolon is overlooked. However, the semicolon can add a little style and clarity as well as offer a greater advantage when conveying balance or contrast.
Discover how you can use the semicolon with these tips!
Separate Independent Clauses
Semicolons are used to separate two independent clauses when a period is too strong.
Sit down. I’ll make the coffee.
This command appears very serious and implies conflict.
Sit down; I’ll make the coffee.
This command is softened and implies generosity, i.e. “Don’t trouble yourself; I’ve got this.”
Conjunctive Adverbs
Semicolons can spice up conjunctive adverbs (e.g. accordingly, consequently, however, etc.) when used transitionally between clauses of a compound sentence.
We all agree the Comma Splice should be banned; however, we don’t have the funds to eradicate it.
Quotation Marks
Semicolons should occur outside quotation marks and parentheses.
She sardonically called him “The Graceful Trapeze Artist”; he never could stay on his feet.
Complicated Series
Semicolons can also step in to help clarify a series when it’s too intense for commas. More specifically, semicolons separate elements of a series when the items of the series are longer or set off by commas. Semicolons shouldn’t be used in the presence of a coordinating conjunction (e.g. and, but, for, etc.) unless there is extensive punctuation required in one or more individual clauses.
Attending the Tattoo Convention were ten tenacious bikers fromSouth Dakota; eight pretentious hipsters fromSeattle; three barbershop quartet singers singing “I get a kick from champagne”; six males and four females going through a mid-life-crisis; and seven blond bombshells with tattoos on their lower backs.
The contestants of the sauerkraut-eating championship came from Munich, Germany; Germantown, Wisconsin; Warsaw, Poland;Cairo,Egypt; andTijuana,Mexico.
Use these semicolon tips to strengthen your writing skills, as well as maintain your credibility as an Expert Author. We will have more punctuation howlers coming up in the next few weeks, so stop by the Blog for the latest and greatest tips to error-free articles.
Did you miss our last edition of Top Punctuation Howlers? Find out more about the colon  in search box.
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Bloggers credit ways to increase exposure by empowering readers and audience

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Key factors of professional bloggers and web page writers as Bloggers credit ways to increase exposure by empowering readers and audience.
Bloggers credit ways to increase exposure by empowering readers and audience

Rev Up Your Articles by Sharing Your Power

You know the old adage, “knowledge is power.” Want to amplify your power to increase your credibility, exposure, reader-loyalty, and much more? Rev up your knowledge-engines by empowering your readers with quality, original articles.
Feeling empowered is an incredible motivator to take action. By empowering your readers, you will increase your credibility and exposure, as well as your reader’s trust and confidence in your platform. In turn, this increases the likelihood they will return to your platform, try your products or services, sign up for your newsletters, and much more.
Here are 3 ways to rev up your articles to empower your readers and ensure your efforts don’t backfire.
3 Methods to Empower Your Readers

1. Lose (or At Least Loosen) the Tie

A formal writing style can often stifle the reader’s ability to connect with the author because the author’s personality isn’t present in a formal presentation of ideas. To connect with your readers, try an informal, conversational article writing style. This style often includes sharing personal anecdotes or humor in a more personable, casual manner.
A conversational article writing style doesn’t include using SMS text language (e.g. LOL I <3 U), nor does it entail taking a break on proofreading your articles for comprehension and grammar. Confusing language and poor grammar doesn't build relationships; it isolates readers with the opposite effect: alienation. Use clear language and proper grammar to increase your ability to empower your readers.

2. Measure Article Density

To measure the density of your article, consider the mass (the core of your message) and volume (the amount of words you’ve used to convey the message). Dense articles are often overwhelming to readers, whereas thin or light articles are often rejected by readers for vague and unoriginal content.
Balance the mass by limiting your articles to 3-5 key points per article (save additional points for other articles), incorporating lists, or using bolded headers. Limit the volume of your article to 500-700 words, and if you must, try not to go over 1,000 words.

3. More “You” and “Yours”

Ensure your articles are reader-centric, i.e. they should feel the article revolves completely around them. Give your readers a sense of immediacy and place them directly in the article by using more active, descriptive language as well as talk directly with the reader by using “you” and “yours.” Ensure the content in your articles is in-tune with your reader’s needs and is relevant. Also, avoid dropping a promotional bomb that makes readers scatter like a scalded cat.
Finally, target your reader’s expectations by delivering on every aspect of your title, summary, article body, and resource box. And no last minute additions of “Oh! I almost forgot!” Properly incorporate, deliver, and seal the deal with quality.

Conclusion:-

Aim to inspire by showing your audience the possibilities and empower them to take action by imparting your incredible knowledge. Use the above tips to write more engagingly, to create a more memorable platform, and to empower yourself in the process.
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Blogging Technological article Titles and Broken Promises

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Blogging Technological article Titles and Broken Promises key criteria:-

Build Trust with Relevant Article Titles

Have you ever had that feeling of excitement after being promised one thing and then the feeling of disappointment when it wasn’t delivered? Your reader has too.

Blogging Technological article Titles and Broken Promises

Your article title is a promise to your reader. Deliver on that promise in a quality, original article and you’ve built trust. Break that promise with irrelevant content and you’ve lost your credibility.

Internet readers develop a screening process to protect themselves. Each bad experience is cataloged into “scenarios to avoid” and every good experience raises their expectations into the “what it should be” category.

Let’s say you searched for “large dog breeds” and stumbled across an article titled “World’s Largest Dog.” You may think “this looks like the article for me” or “this better be good.” Whatever the case may be, your screening process has been launched – you expect to learn about a dog that holds the record for being the largest dog to ever walk the face of the earth.

What happens when you click the title and the article is all aboutChihuahuas? You would likely react like the majority of readers: It’s not relevant to you so you click away. This broken promise became a “scenario to avoid” and not only have you lost your credibility, the platform associated with you is questioned as well.

The Delivery Is in the Details

Avoid having your articles placed into the “scenarios to avoid” category by ensuring your article titles have top-notch quality and are 100% relevant to your article (and your audience) by providing details.

Here are four questions to ask yourself to ensure you are delivering on your promise:

Does the article deliver on the subject? The subject of the article title serves as a focus for the article. Using the focus to ensure relevance, the article should deliver upon every aspect of the title.

Does the title include a location-name? The article should offer unique details about the location other than repeating the location-name as part of a key phrase.

Does the title promise a specific number of tips? The article should deliver the promised number of tips in a clearly defined fashion.

Does the title include the phrase ‘How To’ or ‘Where To’? The article should explain specifically ‘how’ and exactly ‘where.’

Broken Promise Scenarios to Avoid

Here are two more common “scenarios to avoid.” First, I’ll give you the title, then what the reader expects, and finally what was actually delivered (i.e. the broken promise).

Promise: Buy [Goods] in Bulk

Expectation: The principle of the article is to discuss buying goods in bulk.

Broken Promise: The article recommends going online and buying goods from a popular auction site.

Promise: Get Rich Quick!

Expectation: Strategies on how to accumulate money at breakneck speed.

Broken Promise: Promotes a questionable program in which the reader has to make a “financial contribution” to learn more.

Ensure your article titles have top-notch quality and are absolutely relevant to your article by asking yourself whether your article delivers on the title before you submit. In doing so, you will raise the bar in your niche by building trust with your readers.
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Best 10 Proofreading Tips for Expert Authors

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Professional bloggers , web page writers and offline writers too need some extra care of their articles, so here is the Best 10 Proofreading Tips for Expert Authors.

Say Goodbye to Grammatical Errors and Spelling Mistakes

Best 10 Proofreading Tips for Expert Authors

If your article has grammatical errors or spelling mistakes, it doesn’t matter if the content is original and valuable. If your readers (i.e. your audience, prospective publishers, and even your competitors) find an error, they will automatically focus on the mistake and your credibility will slip away.Proofreading is an incredible step to preserving your credibility and it keeps your reader’s attention positively focused on you, your original content, and your quality message.Here are 10 proofreading tips to keep your articles blemish-free:

1.Brush Up:-

You may consider getting a grammar guide, subscribing to grammar newsletters, or even enrolling in an English Grammar course. Continue exploring the English language, discovering every nuance to improve your articles, and applying your findings in your articles.

2.Breathing Room:-

Before you proofread, walk away from the article. Proofread after giving the article and you a little breathing room.

3.Style Guide:-

From proper capitalization to accurate citations, style guides such as APA,Chicago, MLA, The Associate Press, etc. are used to ensure writing is consistent and credible.

4.Perspective:-

Change the format/environment you originally wrote the article. For example: change your font, read from the bottom-up, change your screen size, etc. to focus on areas you may unknowingly skip over.

5.Spell Check: -

Most spell check options (i.e. from Microsoft Word, Internet Browser add-ons, etc.) will indicate spelling (red underline), grammatical (green underline), and formatting (blue underline) errors. (NOTE: Spell checkers are not fail-safe. A critical human eye is more powerful and more accurate than many spell checkers.)

6.Remove Emoticons:-

While emoticons and text-speak have their place in the instant messaging world (e.g. LOL b4 u go dont u hve 2 riteurarcles? :P), not all audiences understand it. Also, text-speak is too informal for many audiences.

7.Misused Words:-

Keep an eye out for commonly misused words (many of which are homophones), e.g. affect vs. effect, loose vs. lose, its vs. it’s, ensure vs. insure, etc.

8.Punctuation Marks: -

Take a bird’s eye view of your article. Consider the formatting and punctuation: is there too much indicating clipped sentences or too little indicating run-on sentences? Also, avoid excessive exclamation points or overdone ellipses and watch out for missing or inappropriately used apostrophes.

9.Error Wall of Shame:-

Keep a proofreading checklist of common blunders and areas you (or others) have caught before. Some people will hang their blunders in their writing space as reminders. Others will create a checklist and search for the errors. Actively learning your errors should prevent them from occurring again.

10.Question Everything: -

If something sounds or appears odd to you, trust your instincts and ask for a second opinion or look it up. Ask someone to review your articles to catch errors and other discrepancies you might have missed.

Conclusion:-

Once you’ve incorporated these methods into your article writing routine, you will find your skills strengthen and eventually take less time. Try out any or all of these methods today and discover how they will actually help you improve your authority, save you time, and maintain your credibility.What’s your favorite proofreading method? Let us know by sharing it in the comments section below!
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Key criteria to write relevant real time free standing articles

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Every professional blogger and author want to become success in respective field of writing.Here, Key criteria to write relevant real time free standing articles.

1.Pack a Powerful Informative Punch:-

Key criteria to write relevant real time free standing articles

Free-standing articles have the power to amplify your exposure without being cumbersome or inconvenient to readers and publishers.Each free-standing article strengthens your article portfolio because it is accessible, convenient, and relevant, as well as packs a powerful informative punch. Readers (and publishers) should feel satisfied the article and the author have met their expectations without irrelevant baggage. When their expectations have been met, they will want more and will return for more.

2. Article Parts vs. Free-Standing:-

The key to writing free-standing articles is in your article’s title, i.e. the promise you make to your readers that builds expectation. Don’t promise parts, sequels, etc. Promise specific information and deliver. Let’s take a closer look:In the blog post How to Get 10 Articles From 1 Idea, we listed 10 angles to write 10 articles. We could turn this into an article set and write 10 articles discussing the various angles in greater depth. Consider the difference of article parts vs. free-standing articles if we were to expand each angle into its own article:

3. Capture does n't free standing:-

Here’s why this doesn’t work: Where are parts 1-8 and part 10? Should you start at the beginning (part 1) and then move up or just continue on to part 10 and backtrack later? Has part 10 even been published yet? This situation is a bad user experience and makes the content inaccessible to the reader. Please note, this also applies to Roman numerals, e.g. How to Get 10 Articles From 1 Idea IX.

4. Not free standing:-

Here’s why this doesn’t work: As a reader, you expect 10 article ideas to be presented in this article. However, you only find one topic, the comparative article writing style, which is not the information you were searching for. The article lacks relevance to you and you move on. This situation is inconvenient for readers and publishers because they only want content that is relevant to them. Anything else is a poor user experience.

5. Capture free-Standing:-

Bingo! This article is free-standing because as a reader, you know exactly what is going to be delivered in this article and you can determine its relevance to you right away. The information is accessible because you don’t have to look for various parts and it conveniently presents all of the information to you.

Conclusion:-

There you have it! Write relevant, convenient, and accessible free-standing articles that meet your reader’s expectations. By providing so much benefit in one article, the reader will seek out more articles written by you.
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A model checklist for what to capitalize in a blog post title

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Blog post title or article title is the first impression to viewers or readers that can make audience interested to read the post or article.Here is A model checklist for what to capitalize in a blog post title .

1.Do Your Titles Look Like a Ransom Note:-

A model checklist for what to capitalize in a blog post title

To catch your reader’s attention, you want to do everything you can to ensure your article title is perfect. In fact, why not give it a little style?A little style, such as The Associate Press or Chicago, can go a long way in making your titles stand out. Also, using a style consistently will catch the eye of your readers and maintain your credibility.

2.What Titles Without Style Look Like to the Reader:-

Many Expert Authors will submit their articles with a title in CAPS: such as 'WHAT’S CAPITALIZED AND WHAT’S NOT CAPITALIZED IN ARTICLE TITLES'

This is the equivalent to shouting at your readers. Shouting is difficult to read and it’s often ignored as spam. Also, you don’t want your article title to look like a ransom note (seemingly random capitalization), which can be even more difficult to read:

wHAt’S CaPiTAliZED ANd wHaT’s nOt CaPiTalIzED In aRTicLE TItlEs

Of course, this last scenario is a bit extreme. However, it’s important to stress if you don’t follow stylistic capitalization rules in your title, you can potentially damage your credibility and even hurt your chances of being syndicated by publishers.

Use these title style rules based on The Associate Press (AP) style guide to help maintain your credibility, attract readers, and stay in the favorable eyes of publishers.

3.What’s Capitalized and What’s Not Capitalized in Article Titles:-

First off, for our purposes today, we will refer to capitalization in terms of using uppercase for the first letter of a word, not the entire word.

Next, here’s a trick many use to remember what isn’t capitalized in titles: CAP

C for (Coordinating) Conjunctions: and, but, or, yet, for, nor, so (unless the conjunction is four or more letters).

A for Articles: a, an, the (unless it’s the first or last word of the title).

P for Preposition: on, at, to, in, for, etc. (unless the preposition is four or more letters and/or it’s the first or last word of the title).

Finally, when it comes to title capitalization, there are several rules that determine whether or not you strike your shift key and then a letter:

Capitalize the first word and the last word of the title, even in the event it’s an article or a preposition.

Capitalize prepositions and (subordinating) conjunctions of four or more letters.

Capitalize principal words (first in order of importance or main words). These include:

Nouns

Pronouns

Adjectives

Verbs*

Adverbs

* “Is” is a VERB! Many authors from around the world will forget to capitalize this little verb in the title. Make a statement of style: Always capitalize “Is” in your article titles.

Conclusion:-

Try these title style guide tips to strengthen your writing skills, maintain your credibility, and attract publishers. Please note we don’t demand you follow The Associate Press style. However, it’s one of the most widely used styles both on the Internet and off. Whatever style you choose, ensure you use it consistently and start attracting positive attention!
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Key points of professional bloggers and authors maintain the time management strategy for Success

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Time is the main factor of any business or profession any where in the world either online or offline.Here is the Key points of professional bloggers and authors maintain the time management strategy for Success.

1.Stop Wasting Your Time:-

Does article writing sometimes make you feel like poor Gertrude? You set a goal. You vowed to write no matter how long it took. Time passed while a multitude of emotions swept over you; the words just wouldn’t come!

Key points of professional bloggers and authors maintain the time management strategy for Success

Avoid meeting the same demise as Gertrude. Be more productive and get more out of your article writing efforts by considering how much quality effort you’re putting into your article writing.

Measuring how much time you’re putting into your articles on a daily and weekly basis will allow you to set reasonable article writing goals to become more efficient. Find what works for you so it fits around your lifestyle and your other responsibilities. In turn, your efficiency will help you become a better Expert Author and help amplify your platform.

2.Here’s how to manage:

First, identify your goals. Every task you perform should be related to a goal, whether it’s professional or personal. For instance, writing articles might be related to a goal to become an authority in your niche. Write your goals down.

Next, release the time hounds. Faithfully track your activities and the time spent on those activities for at least one week. Use this Article Writing Plan Time Sheet (downloadable PDF) by writing down keywords for tasks, e.g. Draft, Write, Proofread, Email, Facebook, etc., and indicate the time you spent on each task (e.g. 20 minutes). Be as accurate as you can by noting the time spent. Also, if you’re performing another task and you “quickly” squeeze in another task, like checking your email, jot a note down on your time sheet.

Finally, stay the course. It will seem like you’re spending a lot of time just tracking your time. You may become frustrated as you start seeing how much time you spend on particular tasks, similar to counting calories and discovering just how many calories are in your favorite treat. Stay the course.

3.After at least 7 days of tracking, review the contents of your time sheet.

i. Identify Time Sinks:

A time sink is an activity that takes up huge chunks of your time. Determine which of these time sinks were reactive (putting out fires) and those that were proactive (planned). Once you’ve determined your reactive time sinks, consider how you can adjust your schedule to proactively prevent reactive tasks.

ii.Be Distraction Honest:

Outside distractions and even self-induced distractions can break your productive focus. Identifying these will help you hone in on a pattern you can plan around (e.g. time sinks, family, etc.) to come up with distraction-defense strategies.

iii.Inattentive Tasking:

Multi-tasking can seem like the most productive period of your day, but it’s a little like driving while texting, talking, monitoring your GPS, and finding your favorite song – something is going to go wrong because nothing has your full attention. If you find you have performed a ton of other little tasks while performing a larger task, try scheduling these little tasks and be disciplined to limiting your attention during those times to avoid inattentive tasking on more important tasks.

iv.Assess Your Goals:

How many tasks on your time sheet were goal-oriented tasks? How many were not? If you find your time fleeting before you and you aren’t closer to achieving your goals, it’s time to reassess the situation and strategically plan.

Find the times of your day you are the most productive for particular tasks and play around with your schedule. What works for one Expert Author, may not work for you and your lifestyle. Experiment. Find your prime time for each task by measuring your level of productivity and how much closer you are to achieving your goals. Then, when you’re ready, try planning your article writing with this Editorial Calendar system.

Conclusion:-

Gain confidence in your article writing efforts with this effective system. What are your time sinks? Do you have a great time management strategy? Share your suggestions and questions in the comments section below!
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Current hot 7 factors of writing an engaging introduction of blog post and article

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Engaging with readers or viewers is one of the major factor in blogging or article writing profession to get successful boost.Here is the Current hot 7 factors of writing an engaging introduction of blog post and article.

1. Approaches to Piquing Your Readers’ Interest:-

Current hot 7 factors of writing an engaging introduction of blog post and article

Imagine you have walked into a networking event; there are doctors, lawyers, business executives, entrepreneurs, work-at-home experts, and dozens of other professionals.You recall the key to networking is to engage your audience with an exciting speech that sums up what you offer in less than 30 seconds. How do you get the most out of 30 seconds? Catch your audience’s attention with a motivating and memorable introduction. And then, focus on the solutions you can provide your audience (without spouting off a litany of products and services) to build trust.

To readers, articles are a lot like networking events. They rely on article titles to catch their attention, a summary to give them a snapshot, and an introduction to compel them forward.Compel your readers with these tips, Before you write your article introduction, consider these three elements:

i.Your article topic

ii.Your main idea

iii.Your approach

Let’s take a closer look at your approach. Your approach is the method initially used to pique your reader’s interest and it provides an illustrative theme throughout the rest of your article. Try these 5 approaches to writing engaging article introductions:

2.The Shock-Effect:–

Provide a relevant lead-in that surprises, shocks, or startles the reader. Ensure the information you provide isn’t exaggerated or entirely untrue or this approach will ruthlessly damage your credibility. Shock-effect styles include controversy, arguments, statistics, facts, or confessions.

3.The Query :–

Posing a relevant question draws the reader into your article and builds a connection: Will you reaffirm or contradict their response? Will you provide a solution? Will you provide a new view? Be direct by avoiding phrases like “do you” or “have you” to avoid sounding like a late-night infomercial.

4.The Anecdote: –

Storytelling can be an incredible point of entry for readers. Provide a quick, but descriptive, personal narrative that focuses on a response to an event and allows the reader to be in your shoes. If you have a gift for humor, exercise your joviality in your introduction. Avoid posturing – tell a story, don’t sell a story.

5.The Quotation :–

Properly incorporated into an introduction, a relevant and quick quotation can work magic. It allows the reader to connect with your article with a memorable, emotional response – anger, frustration, compassion, agreement, and even love. For instance: “‘Every day, I sit at my computer and stare at my computer screen,’ a client lamented the other day. ‘I just can’t write!’ My client does not struggle alone. Dozens of authors around the world…”

6.Role-play:–

Provide your readers with an attitude or action. Illustrate a scenario using descriptive and detailed language with which the reader can either relate to the situation or see it from another perspective. Play into your reader’s concerns or needs as well as hone-in on solutions to compel them forward.

7. consider these introductory special notes:-

i. Be Compelling :–

Your introduction should be welcoming to the reader and move them along. Avoid exhausting the reader’s attention with excessive exposition. Provide your relevant attention grabber, your topic, and your main idea.

ii.Maintain Focus: –

Maintain your focus on the reader and your topic by steering clear of language that draws attention to your opinion and your bias. Allow your article to be your ambassador by writing for your audience and your niche.

iii. Circumvent Ego: –

Avoid egocentric or pretentious statements like “The other day, a client came into my office seeking my advice…” or “In my humble opinion.” Readers are more interested in the story of the client, not posturing. The focus should always be on the reader and on the topic.

Conclusion:-

Begin building your reader’s trust by piquing their interest with a stellar introduction. Try any of these 7  approaches in your next set of articles to engage your audience and motivate them to read your articles today!
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Best ways to manage the alternative author names in article directories

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We play multiple roles in our professional and personal life. Why not create a brand for each of  our specialties ? here is the Best ways to manage the alternative author names in article directories. Creating a different brand for each specialty allows you to be specific in each niche without appearing suspicious to your reader.

Best ways to manage the alternative author names in article directories

Readers are more likely to trust an expert who specializes in one thing rather than a person who claims to know many different things on a wide variety of subjects, i.e. a “Jack of all trades, master of none.”

For authors, building a brand begins with creating an alternate author name.

1.What’s an Alternate Author Name:-

Alternate author names include co-authors or pseudonyms. A pseudonym or pen name is often adopted by an author to spread their talents into a new niche. You can also use an alternate author name to differentiate yourself from another notable author or to avoid overexposure. Additionally, a pseudonym can be adopted by a ghostwriter to leverage the credibility of another author or brand.For example, imagine you’re a business manager who manages a creative solutions team and you have published articles on management. You could choose to write articles for creative solutions under another author name to preserve your management brand. Additionally, based on your experience as an Expert Author, you could choose to write about your article writing experiences under another author name.

2.When Should You Add an Alternate Author Name:-

Use these questions to help you determine whether you should add an alternate author name to your article directories'  accounts:Did another author collaborate or jointly write an article with you? Add the name of your co-author so your names can appear together on the article or articles.Is the article topic outside your primary niche (e.g. Writing Articles vs. Management)? Keep niches separate and organized by designating one niche per name.Are you writing on behalf of a company or a client? Submit the article under their name (whether it’s a pseudonym or real name), but ensure you have their permission before you do.

3.How to Add an Alternate Author Name:-

For ease of use and organization, you can add an alternate author name by creating a new  profile from within your account. To add a new profile (a.k.a. alternate author name):

i.Log into your  account

ii.Select the Expert Author name dropdown menu in the upper-right corner of your screen

iii.Select “Add a new profile”

iv.In the pop-up window, read the Alternate Author Name Terms of Service

v.In the Author Name field, enter your desired Author Name

vi.Ensure the checkmark box is selected to switch to the new author name profile upon creation

vii.Select “Create”

Conclusion:-

Begin building your brand by using the above tips. Create strength, confidence, and credibility in your articles and platform at large by choosing your author names wisely. For more information, discover how to stay on the right path to managing multiple brands , comment here or contact us.
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Top 8 successful promotional secrets of blog and website

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When webmasters have created their final master piece, their next step is to promote, promote and promote. This is a vital step in survival of your website and will increase your sales and visitors. Many webmasters, especially beginners, gets so excited and want to take major steps so that they can get hundreds of visitors next day. Sometimes they try to adopt many illegal ways to promote their website. This causes their website to be banned from major search engines and as well as it is disliked by many people.

Top 8 successful promotional secrets of blog and website


[caption id="attachment_1398" align="aligncenter" width="640"]Top 8 successful promotional secrets of blog and website Top 8 successful promotional secrets of blog and website[/caption]

Conclusively this decreases your website reputation drastically. Its cause is sometime a wrong advice or some people do these steps purposely to increase traffic without knowing its side effects. We will discuss here these website promotion mistakes and we would advice you to never use these techniques if possible. Never Submit Your Website When Under construction: It is always better to submit your website when it is fully functional. This leaves a real bad impression on directories or search engine, wherever you submit to. If your visitors see a under construction sign, many of them are not going to come again, especially if this sign stays for longer.Just look at the Top 8 successful promotional secrets of blog and website.

1. Don’t spam:-


Spamming can be of different types. I would concentrate on email spamming now. Never force anyone, by sending them emails, to view your website or product, especially if they have not subscribed for that. There are many offers available on net that you can get thousands of emails list and use it for your advertising. Never trust them whatever they say. You are not going to gain anything; however, you could make more enemies and get your website banned sometimes.

2. Redirectors:-


Many websites use redirectors or set their fresh rates too high. It really has a bad effect on search engine ranking. Try to avoid them as much as possible.

3. Avoid wrong methods of web page optimization:-


Many people still use those old methods to hide text by changing its color with back ground color so making it invisible to see. Do not also try to hide text with layers. This was good enough in 1995 when search engines were in their developing stages. Now they have got quite intelligent to overcome such techniques and give penalty to websites using such technique.

4. Don’t create doorway pages:-


Many search engine optimizers did reverse engineering and get lot of knowledge about search engine algorithms. They used this knowledge to create doorway pages or welcome pages or jump pages, which were used to get first 10 positions in search engines. These pages were very well optimized for search engines and ranked very well. That is good if your website is very much dynamic and its pages are not well ranked by search engines. But how could spammers can stay away? Then every spammer used these techniques excessively and conclusively it became difficult for people to get relevant content. Search engines then realized this trend of increasing such vast amount of doorway pages and they penalize those websites now which use these techniques. So I would recommend to never using this method to promote your website.

5. Don’t Involve in Link Making Schemes:-


I would recommend you to increase your page rank but not by using unreliable link producing schemes. Search engines have become very choosy about which type of links a website is having. So it is better to never involve in links farms, auto link exchange programs, site networks. Search engines penalize hardly those websites who try to artificially increase their incoming links or suddenly gain so many links in very small amount of time. It is better to get links by legal ways. Get them from quality websites and try your best to inbound links only.

6. Keyword Frequency:-


It is always advised that you should not stuff your web page only with key words, instead of using your primary keyword hundreds of times, pay your attention to contents. If you are really so concerned about your keywords then it is better to use different keywords at different places in your website.

7. Don’t spend your time on scrap:-


Sometimes we may have seen websites showing guaranteed no. 1 position in search engines or submit your website to 1500 and plus search engines. They are lire mostly. Because there are only about 10 major search engines which receive about 95% of the internet traffic. All other search engines are smaller ones and get their primary results from major search engines. It is a real wastage of time and money if you are going to use those schemes. Sometimes they also optimize your website in such way that it can even get banned, so be careful.

8. Don’t Buy Untargeted Traffic:-


Many websites claim that they will send 10,000 visitors or so. What do you think, will that be targeted traffic and will that traffic change into your potential customers? Think carefully and then decide before choosing any such type of offer.
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Good SEO provides an excellent foundation for good Adsense CTR

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Provide  SEO  to Adsense Pages for higher CTR’s Beginners of Adsense are often not be aware of the fact that a site well optimized for Google Adsense via SEO does also provides an excellent foundation for good Adsense CTR’s and thus often a much better income ratio than usual. Here are some important SEO based Adsense optimization tips. Combining Adsense SEO techniques with recommendations by Google (such as using an 300x250 Ad for best click-throughs) and blending it further seamingless into your site (same background color, no frames) while taking care of its location (over-the-fold) can help you significant in creating a target webpage with moderate or higher Adsense income streams for each page - and a much higher CTR than only 1-2% most users will experience.

[caption id="attachment_1401" align="aligncenter" width="640"]Good SEO provides an excellent foundation for good Adsense CTR Good SEO provides an excellent foundation for good Adsense CTR[/caption]

It is important to realize that you need to apply SEO optimization techniques to Adsense pages prior expecting a top Ad performing page and the tools, tips and hints given in this hands-on-report will help you significant! Just follow all the SEO tips.Please read further below. Using Search Engine Optimization techniques on Adsense pages is practically the same as using SEO on standard pages. But doing it right is a kind of art based on extensive research. Yet there are guidelines, strategies and free tools that can be utilized. I will mention a few below:

A. Title Tag:-


While as short as possible, do it as meaningful as you can. Some keyword research for your theme would help., but don’t stuff those keywords just into your title. Make the title no longer than 60 characters. The title should include the major keywords you want to be ranked as high as possible and should have a close proximity among them. Use at least a single phrase for the title with 2-4 important page keywords. Again: Either a shorter tile for more relevance or a longer one for more keyword combinations you want your page to be found for - but at costs of a lower relevance and the risk that your page will be ranked lower .

i. Description Tag:-


You may repeat some of your keywords here but sometimes that is not recommended. If you do, put them on the beginning. Explain shortly what your page (not site) is about?

ii.MetaTag:-


Not very important these days, nevertheless as a good SEO style but your keywords in here. Rules by search engines might change one day again. Most important keywords & phrases first. You should have at least 14 keywords which MUST be found in your contents. Around 20 important keywords are enough. You may repeat keywords, but only once.

iii. Metacomments tag:-


You can ignore it but better yet make it similar to your description tag. You may NOT want to repeat your major keywords here again.

B. Your contents:-


I. Body Tag:-


Most important: Have some unique information here which must be related to your title. Avoid to have duplicate contents on your site. Your Adsense SEO will suffer. You can use PLR articles but you should rewrite at least 15% of the contents of each one...as more as better. Your main keyword phrases, as you have provided for your title, should not have a higher keyword density in the body than 2-3% although some believe it can be up to 7%. Be at the safe side.

ii. H1-H3 Tags:-


According a German (written) report ‘Ranking Faktoren’, H1 tags do not help ranking anymore and as said somewhere else, it can even hurt your attempts for going to the top. If you use the H2 tag, use it only once and limit it to a small title. Provide a short descriptions and summary, perhaps in bold, what your page is all about. You can also use the H3 tag but again, use it only once. Try not to repeat the text within the H tags.

iii. Bold Text:-


Use it sparely as well. If you want to use it more often, use it within CSS defined fonts...they will not count with search engines. There are many more SEO factors such as on-site links, on-side link texts and especially quality incoming links who will determining you rankings. Reciprocal links are not dead but be carefully in deciding to whom you are trading with. Avoid getting unrealted links, links from link farms and any paid links, pop-ups etc. Read Google’s Adsense TOS. Feel free to extent your knowledge by further researching the Internet on the topics given on this page.

C.WEB hosting:-


For best results with Adsense avoid hosting at blogs (until you have mastered SEO techniques for your Adsense pages) and get your own carefully thought-out domain name and a hosting service. These steps alone will help your site stand out. This must not be expensive. For hosting, I do use for some of my sites $3 hosting services with virtual no limitations in data transfers, HD size, and DBs you can have. Very reliable, too.

D.SEO Tools: -


For a very quick check about your page, you can and should use the SEO Doc Mini-Tester, especially if you do not own more sophisticated tools. I’m not associated with the site or its services but that free tester gives you an excellent graphical overview of the status of your page. Once you got good results with it you can and should go further with commercial products perhaps like their own in-depth seo testing program or for example, IBP, as the Doc Mini-Tester above does not take your important contents (body) into consideration. But its a good initial tool for evaluating your meta tags. In any case, if the free SEO tool does not show good results for your pages, you need to improve them first before doing anything else! If the doc mini tester is satiesfied with your work, you can do the next steps. Doing SEO for Adsense in the correct way means getting increased clean target traffic which in turn converts into better ctr’s and thus higher income. Finally, in case your site is already a while on the net, you can check for backlinks. An SEO online tool you could use.

E. Monetize Tools:-


If you want to know what ads your pages are showing, you may check out the one from Google or third party ones: Adsense Preview Tool

I., Ads. Preview Tool

II. and Ads. Preview Tool

III. Use them at your own risk!

In a report written some years ago, there were stated that the amount of traffic a site gets correlates to around 30% to the amount of pages a site have. Thus, as more pages you create with unique contents as higher will be your Adsense income. Obviously...I found that to be true, but again, pages need to be highly SEO optimized or your CTR’s will be always ways below as they should be, no matter how well you have designed your page for adsense. One of the important keys for adsense success is clean traffic search engine traffic and seo techniques can help you greatly in archiving this goal. This article provides the basic SEO knowledge required to Good SEO provides an excellent foundation for good Adsense CTR, so consider the seo & adsense tips mentioned above. Take some time to learn to do it right and you will be amazed about your increasing Adsense income results. Any questions? Contact me right here
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Corporate article writing as a way to share expertise and valuable contributions to niche

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Class of industry, the company  belongs to, then market  serviced attributte of the industry  significant  risk elements of the industry  and the company  in particular   details  cmpany's market  share and place main competitors share and strength .services offered,sales ,marketing and key customer : provision of services projected services mix  target market segment  customer relationship marketing set -up  future strategy planning.Writing articles on a weekly basis, expert  corporate author Doron Gil, Ph.D. focuses on the importance of self-awareness in successful relationships.After publishing his book, “The Self-Awareness Guide to a Successful Intimate Relationship,” Doron saw Corporate article writing as a way to share expertise and valuable contributions to niche .Here is the his feeling about corporate article writing.Here is the summarized interview of  expert author Doron Gil, Ph.D.

Corporate article writing as a way to share expertise and valuable contributions to niche

“The more involved I have become, the more I realized that the process of writing enriches me on two levels,” Doron stated. “First, the more articles I write, the more I feel that I contribute to the well being of readers and to their success in their relationships. Second, throughout the writing process – as I read other ezine experts’ articles, books, and magazines and by being tuned in to the news and the world around me – I get new ideas for my on-going writing and continue to expand my own awareness of the issues I write about.”

Finding Connections as a Source of Inspiration:-

Gaining inspiration through extensive reading and listening to the news, Doron is motivated to find connections between a variety of fields and his topic of expertise. “My typical writing session begins by jotting down ideas …” Doron described. “I expand these ideas into short paragraphs to write a brief essence of the article. I then sit down by the computer and write the first draft of the article.”Using Monthly Summaries and other performance tools, Doron has amassed many incredible insights. “The best articles are short, to the point, having a clear and straightforward message,” he stated. “My advice to newbie Expert Authors therefore is to write short, concise articles to enable the article’s main theme to come across to your readers more easily and so you can ‘market’ your idea more efficiently.”

Building Article Writing Strength:-

In our interview, Doron shared a few challenges and how he overcame them to become a successful Expert Author in a competitive niche s corporate writer.

Question 1:

How to not repeat the same issue over and over again.

Doron Gil:

I overcame it by approaching the same topic from different angles.

Question 2:

How to be productive and write at least 1 article per week.

Doron Gil:

I overcame it by constantly reading other experts’ articles, books, newspapers, and magazines to come up with yet another new idea for an article.

Question 3:

How to market my book and articles.

Doron Gil:

I overcame this challenge by deciding that I should write my articles not necessarily from a marketing view point, but from an educational one. Meaning my passion and interest is in helping others find true love and successful relationships in their life as well as in helping them become Self-Aware and empowered to develop and maintain intimacy. Having this in mind, I don’t focus on marketing … I focus on the content and quality of my articles, feeling if I follow my heart and passion I help others via my writing.

Conclusion:-

Follow your heart and passion by writing quality content for your audience! Try Doron’s strategies in your own article writing efforts to build your credibility and a loyal audience.Do you have a question or comment for Doron? Feel free to leave it in the comments section below.
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Real time correct concept to make money online in global market

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It is very very serious and heart beating problem of Asian countries that educated youths having no jobs.so they are now behind of easy money but it is not possible to them to earn money as they want.The youths trying their luck to earn more and more from inter net but the formulas generated by the western countries not fit for them because westran are very cunning .they give the asian simply a dream hope nothing else,they never paid to the asian except a few sites .one pay but their payment is so low.They give ads showing 100% free but later takes a lot of money from the unemployed youths.they know it that Asia is big market so they to publish or bring to light in this market.there for i want to say that first we have to confirm reliabilty of the site theire after join in their programmes.Online earning is a lucrative option for people looking for ways to earn extra money.

[caption id="attachment_1408" align="aligncenter" width="640"]Real time correct concept to make money online in global market Image credit Sabina Chopra : Real time correct concept to make money online in global market[/caption]

Enormous earning opportunity offered by online learning programs attracts attention of people. Who will not love the easier ways of making money. Nowadays, you will find that several websites are offering some kind of affiliate programs or other ways of earning extra money.Here are a few Real time correct concept to make money online in global market.

Are Online Earning Programs Easier :-

Online Earning Programs are said to be easier ways of earning extra money. The fact is, "Joining online Earning programs is really very easy, but it's not that easy to earn well through such programs." To join any online earning program, you just have to sign up and pay one time signing amount. However, to earn revenue through these programs you need to do hard labor with consistency and accuracy.

Most of the people joining online programs for earning extra money couldn't get success in their intended purpose. They end up losing their patience, valuable time and some hard earned money. They couldn't get success due to lack of consistency and seriousness towards the nature of work. Most of the beginners fail due to lack of knowledge about promoting them.

How to Avoid Failures in Online Earning :-

If you are among one of those people looking towards online programs (affiliate programs or multi level marketing options), then you don't need to worry about your success or failures. It's true that most of the people fail in earning well through such programs, but that doesn't mean you can't do good.

Conclusion:-

For getting success with online earning programs, you need to make a wise selection. All programs  check the background of promoters including  educational and technical qualifications financial back ground. Experience of promoters details about promoters other projects  details of the core team ,equity structure shareholding pattern agreement with shareholders or any significant  agreement between them  details of any stock options or warrants provided to employees .
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Easily Build a Responsive WordPress Theme with Bootstrap

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In this tutorial, we will learn how to make our own responsive WordPress theme using Bootstrap.  Bootstrap is a responsive framework for building web sites and applications, and it’s a great starting point for building a responsive WordPress theme.
Check out Zac’s other WordPress courses and enjoy a free, two-week trial of Treehouse.
You don’t have to have built a theme from scratch before to successfully follow along. However, we do assume that you are comfortable doing things like adding and editing posts in the admin area or installing plugins.
The theme we will build is based on the Basic marketing site example you can find over on the Bootstrap examples page. For this demo we will build out templates for the following pages and functionality:
  • Custom homepage design
  • About page
  • Contact page
  • News section with comments
  • A widgetized sidebar

Getting Started

Before we get started there are a few things you will need to do:
  • Install WordPress
  • Download and Unzip Bootstrap
  • Install the Theme Test Drive plugin*
* You only need this plugin if you will be building the theme using a live site and don’t want people to see the new theme while you are developing it.
Once you have these things ready, open the directory with all your WordPress files and navigate to wp-content > themes.
Screenshot showing path to the themes folder
Once you navigate to that folder create a new folder called “wpbootstrap.” Inside of that folder paste in the bootstrap folder.
Screenshot showing bootstrap inside of new theme folder
Inside of that folder create a new file named index.php.
Screenshot showing index file in bootstrap theme folder
Now we’re going to copy the source code from the example basic marketing site and copy and paste it into the index.php file. Here is the source code you want to use. We’ve just linked to a txt version of the code since it is too long to embed in the post here.
bootstrap-demo-source-code
Now that we have a static HTML page, we’re going to move on to creating the main CSS page. WordPress requires a specially formatted comment to appear at the top of the style.css page. It uses this comment to get all of the meta information about your theme.
In the same folder as your index.php page create a new file named style.css. WordPress requires a CSS file with the specific name style.css, so we can’t name it anything else or our theme won’t work.
Once you have created a style.css file at the same level as your index.php file, add this comment to the top.
/*
Theme Name: WP Bootstrap
Theme URI: http://teamtreehouse.com/wordpress-bootstrap-theme-tutorial
Description: A demo theme built to accompany the Treehouse blog post <a href="http://teamtreehouse.com/wordpress-bootstrap-theme-tutorial">How to Build a WordPress Theme with Bootstrap</a>.
Author: Zac Gordon
Author URI: http://teamtreehouse.com/
Version: 1.0
Tags: responsive, white, bootstrap

License: Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0)
License URI: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

This simple theme was built using the example Bootstrap theme "Basic marketing site" found on the Bootstrap web site http://twitter.github.com/bootstrap/examples/hero.html
*/
The last thing we need to do before we install and start building our new theme is to upload an image that will appear with our theme in the WordPress admin area. This image needs to be 300 x 225 px and named “screenshot.png” You can use this image or create your own.
Screenshot.png file to use with the WP Bootstrap Theme
Your folder structure should now look like this:
Screenshot showing the file structure with the index, css, and screenshot
We’re now ready to go into the admin area and install our new theme. Login to the admin area and go to Appearances > Theme. You should see WP Bootstrap listed as one of the themes.
Screenshot showing the WP Bootstrap theme listed on the Themes page
Click Activate under the WP Bootstrap theme to set it as the current theme for the site.
NOTE: If you are using a live site and do not want people to see this theme under development, make sure to install and activate Theme Test Drive plugin.
Once it’s activated, visit your site and you should see something like this.
Screenshot showing the theme when it's first activated
It’s clear that none of the CSS is working on this site currently, so in the next step we’ll start the process of converting this static file into a working WordPress theme.

Converting Bootstrap Files to WordPress Templates

Most WordPress themes include the following files:
  • index.php
  • style.css
  • header.php
  • footer.php
  • sidebar.php
You will usually see a lot more than these files, but we’re going to start with these files and build from there. Go ahead create empty files for the header.php, footer.php, and sidebar.php.
Screenshot showing the theme folder with header, footer, and sidebar added
What we are going to do is take all of the HTML that would usually be included at the top of every page and cut and paste it into the header.php file. Then we will do the same for all of the HTML that would normally appear at the bottom of every page and cut and paste it into the footer.php file.
Let’s look at what each of these files look like now.  Again these are just .txt files that have been linked to because all of the source code would be too much to list here.  You can copy and paste the code from these files into your own .php files.  
  • header.php
  • index.php
  • footer.php
The sidebar.php file is still empty.
Now we are going to use our first WordPress tags to include the header and footer back into the index.php page.
The two tags we will user are get_header() and get_footer(). These are built in WordPress functions that find the header.php and footer.php files and include them at the top and bottom of the page. WordPress can do this because we named our files header.php and footer.php. If we named the files my-header.php and my-footer.php this would not work.
Here is what our index.php file should look like now:
<?php get_header(); ?>

      <!-- Main hero unit for a primary marketing message or call to action -->
      <div class="hero-unit">
        <h1>Hello, world!</h1>
        <p>This is a template for a simple marketing or informational website. It includes a large callout called the hero unit and three supporting pieces of content. Use it as a starting point to create something more unique.</p>
        <p><a class="btn btn-primary btn-large">Learn more &raquo;</a></p>
      </div>

      <!-- Example row of columns -->
      <div class="row">
        <div class="span4">
          <h2>Heading</h2>
          <p>Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh, ut fermentum massa justo sit amet risus. Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod. Donec sed odio dui. </p>
          <p><a class="btn" href="#">View details &raquo;</a></p>
        </div>
        <div class="span4">
          <h2>Heading</h2>
          <p>Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh, ut fermentum massa justo sit amet risus. Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod. Donec sed odio dui. </p>
          <p><a class="btn" href="#">View details &raquo;</a></p>
       </div>
        <div class="span4">
          <h2>Heading</h2>
          <p>Donec sed odio dui. Cras justo odio, dapibus ac facilisis in, egestas eget quam. Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper. Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh, ut fermentum massa justo sit amet risus.</p>
          <p><a class="btn" href="#">View details &raquo;</a></p>
        </div>
      </div>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
You may be wondering why we would do that? The reason is that later we will be creating multiple pages in which we will want to include the header and footer code. If we just left the header and footer HTML in all of these pages and went to change something in the header or footer, we would have to have to update the HTML across all of the pages. Using the “embed” or “include” method allows us to change the header or footer code in one place and have it automatically fixed across all of the pages. It’s similar to the benefit of linking to CSS files instead of including all of the CSS at the top of each page.
Now that we have this done, we are going to fix all of the broken links to our CSS and JavaScript files.
Let’s start in the header.
Find the links to the CSS files in the header and change them from this
<!-- Le styles -->
<link href="../assets/css/bootstrap.css" rel="stylesheet">
<style type="text/css">
  body {
    padding-top: 60px;
    padding-bottom: 40px;
  }
</style>
<link href="../assets/css/bootstrap-responsive.css" rel="stylesheet">
To this
<!-- Le styles -->
<link href="<?php bloginfo('stylesheet_url');?>" rel="stylesheet">
The in your style.css file, add the following:
@import url('bootstrap/css/bootstrap.css'); 
@import url('bootstrap/css/bootstrap-responsive.css'); 
body { 
     padding-top: 60px; 
     padding-bottom: 40px; 
}

What we have done here is use a special WordPress tag that will automatically link to the bootstrap CSS in our theme files no matter what page of our site we’re on. You will see this bloginfo() function used throughout this tutorial in various ways. Then we used the @import tag to link to the Bootstrap CSS files from our main style.css file. Your site should now look like this:Much better! Before we move on to the footer, there is one more tag we have to add to the header. The wp_head() function is an important hook that allows for plugin developers to dynamically add CSS or JavaScript to your site. If we do not include this in our template, some plugins may not work. While we’re at it, we’re also going to remove a few extranious tags from our header. Your header.php template should look like this.
  <head>
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title>Bootstrap, from Twitter</title>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">

    <!-- Le styles -->
    <link href="<?php bloginfo('stylesheet_url');?>" rel="stylesheet">

    <!-- Le HTML5 shim, for IE6-8 support of HTML5 elements -->
    <!--[if lt IE 9]>
      <script src="http://html5shim.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/html5.js"></script>
    <![endif]-->

    <?php wp_enqueue_script("jquery"); ?>
    <?php wp_head(); ?>
  </head>
  <body>

  <div class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top">
    <div class="navbar-inner">
      <div class="container">
        <a class="btn btn-navbar" data-toggle="collapse" data-target=".nav-collapse">
          <span class="icon-bar"></span>
          <span class="icon-bar"></span>
          <span class="icon-bar"></span>
        </a>
        <a class="brand" href="<?php echo site_url(); ?>"><?php bloginfo('name'); ?></a>
        <div class="nav-collapse collapse">
          <ul class="nav">

              <?php wp_list_pages(array('title_li' => '', 'exclude' => 4)); ?>

          </ul>
        </div><!--/.nav-collapse -->
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>

  <div class="container">

Now, let’s go on to clean up the footer. The example file we download has links to a lot of JavaScript files that we don’t need for our site. So, we are going to start by deleting them. Update your footer so it looks like this. Your updated footer.php file should look like this:
     <hr>

      <footer>
        <p>© Company 2012</p>
      </footer>

    </div> <!-- /container -->

    <!-- Le javascript
    ================================================== -->
    <script src="../assets/js/jquery.js"></script>
    <script src="../assets/js/bootstrap.js"></script>

  </body>
</html>
Next we are going to add the wp_footer() tag that serves the same function as the wp_head(). We will place this right before the closing body tag. We are also going to change the way we load our JavaScript files and move them to the header.php file.
So, update your footer.php file so it looks like this:
<hr>

      <footer>
        <p>© Company 2012</p>
      </footer>

    </div> <!-- /container -->

    <?php wp_footer(); ?>

  </body>
</html>
Now we can go back and add our JavaScript in the way WordPress recommends loading JavaScript. This method includes using the wp_enqueue_script() function.
First, we are going to use this function to load jQuery right about the wp_head(). Go ahead and place the following code into your header.php file like so.
 
    <?php wp_enqueue_script("jquery"); ?>
    <?php wp_head(); ?>
Next we will load our JavaScript using the wp_head() function. Remember, the wp_head() function is what plugins and themes use to add CSS and JavaScript to the header.php file.
To do this we will have to create a new file called functions.php and load our JavaScript from there. This may seem like a lot of extra steps to load a JavaScript file, but as your themes get more complex it will help everything stay clean and organized.
In the same folder as your header.php file, create and open a functions.php file.
Paste into that file the following code:
<?php 

function wpbootstrap_scripts_with_jquery()
{
 // Register the script like this for a theme:
 wp_register_script( 'custom-script', get_template_directory_uri() . '/bootstrap/js/bootstrap.js', array( 'jquery' ) );
 // For either a plugin or a theme, you can then enqueue the script:
 wp_enqueue_script( 'custom-script' );
}
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpbootstrap_scripts_with_jquery' );

?>
To test that this is working, navigate to your site, resize it to be a tablet or mobile size and click on the menu drop down. It should drop down and look like this:
Screenshot of the working mobile dropdown
If that dropdown doesn’t work it means something went wrong linking to the JavaScript files. Make sure that you have properly uploaded the bootstrap > js folder and that your code is correct. You don’t want to build a responsive site with a broken mobile and tablet menu!

Creating the WordPress Homepage

Now that we have our basic static template setup, let’s make it dynamic by creating a homepage in WordPress and having it display on our site instead of the hardcoded HTML we have now.
To do this, go to the WordPress admin area and click Pages > Add New. Title the page “Home” and then click on the HTML tab above the Content Editor.  Now we will cut the remaining markup from the index.php file and paste it into this page and click “Publish”.  Your Home page should look like this.
Screenshot of where the HTML tab is on the content editor bar
All your index.php file should have in it now are the header and footer includes.
<?php get_header(); ?>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
To include the Home page content that we added in the WordPress admin area back into our our template dynamically we are going to use probably the most famous WordPress function called, the Loop.
The WordPress Loop does what it sounds like. It loops through a page or post and pulls in its title and content, as well as a lot of other information like the date it was published, the author who published it, and even any comments associated with the post or page.
The basic loop looks like this.
<?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>

<?php endwhile; else: ?>
 <p><?php _e('Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.'); ?></p>
<?php endif; ?>
Here is what your index.php file should look like with the loop in it.
<?php get_header(); ?>

<?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>

<?php endwhile; else: ?>
 <p><?php _e('Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.'); ?></p>
<?php endif; ?>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
What we will do now is add in the WordPress code that pulls in the title and content of the page. The code for the title looks like this the_title() and the code for the content looks like this the_content(). You can see that they look very similar to the header and footer tags. Here is what the it looks like along with the loop.
<?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>

 <h1><?php the_title(); ?></h1> 
 <?php the_content(); ?>

<?php endwhile; else: ?>
 <p><?php _e('Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.'); ?></p>
<?php endif; ?>
Before we can test this in the browser, we have to update a setting in WordPress to make it display our Home page as the front page instead of recent blog posts. To do this navigate in the admin area to Settings > Reading and under “Front page displays” and click on the “A static page” radio button. Next select “Home” from the “Front page:” dropdown.
Screenshot showing the settings to make Home the default landing page for the site
Click save changes and then reload the homepage. We should now see the contents of the Home page we added in the admin area.
WordPress allows us to use a special file called the front-page.php file just for the home page of the site. Go ahead and save the index.php file as front-page.php and remove the get_title() from the template since we don’t want “Home” appearing in an h1 at the top of the page.
Your front-page.php file should look like this:
<?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>

 <?php the_content(); ?>

<?php endwhile; else: ?>
 <p><?php _e('Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.'); ?></p>
<?php endif; ?>
You can leave the index.php page as is.
To show that this is all working, let’s try editing the homepage content in the admin area and see the changes reflected on the front of the site. Go back and edit the Home page content and remove the the buttons that appear under the three h2 headings. The modified code should look like this.
Homepage content with the buttons removed
Now, revisit the front of the site. It should look like this.
Screenshot of what the homepage should look like without buttons
Our home page is looking good. Let’s move on to adding the other pages of our site.

Adding More Content and Navigation

Go ahead and add an About, News, and Contact page in the admin area. We are going to use dummy content for now, but you can go back and add your own content later. Go ahead and add two or three blog posts as well.

Navigation

The next thing we will do is replace the static navigation menu on the site with one that will show the pages we just added in the admin area. To do this, find the unordered list with the class “nav” and delete the list items. We are also delete the sign in form since we will be logging into the site directly from the WordPress admin login screen.
The markup inside of the div with the class “navbar” should now look like this:
<div class="navbar navbar-inverse navbar-fixed-top">
  <div class="navbar-inner">
    <div class="container">
      <a class="btn btn-navbar" data-toggle="collapse" data-target=".nav-collapse">
        <span class="icon-bar"></span>
        <span class="icon-bar"></span>
        <span class="icon-bar"></span>
      </a>
      <a class="brand" href="#">Project name</a>
      <div class="nav-collapse collapse">
        <ul class="nav">

        </ul>
      </div><!--/.nav-collapse -->
    </div>
  </div>
</div>
Now we are going to use the WordPress code wp_list_pages() for listing the pages. We won’t go into depth on the options for this tag, but what it is doing is creating a list item and a link for each of the pages. Add the following code inside of the empty unordered list with the “nav” class.
<ul class="nav">

  <?php wp_list_pages(array('title_li' => '')); ?>

</ul>
If you go look at your site now you should should see the WordPress pages reflected in the main navigation.
A screenshot showing the navigation, but out of order
There are two things we have to fix about this. First, we have to correct the order of the pages, and second we have to delete the Sample page. We’ll assume that you can delete (or move to trash) the sample page. To change the order of the pages go to the admin area and click on Pages.
Screenshot showing how to change the order of pages
Then hover over the the About page and click Quick Edit. Change the Order field to 1. Click Update. Change the News page order to 2 and the Contact page to 3. The Home page should keep the page order of 0.
When you visit your site now, the navigation should appear in the correct order.
A screenshot showing the navigation menu in the correct order
We now have working navigation. However, since the WordPress navigation markup is slightly different from the Bootstrap markup, particularly in terms of the classes they use for current or active pages, we will have to modify the bootstrap.css file slightly.
In your theme folder go into bootstrap > css and open the bootstrap.css file. Around line 4595 you should see some styles for the Bootstrap .active class. Add the following styles to the rule.
.navbar-inverse .nav .active > a,
.navbar-inverse .nav .active > a:hover,
.navbar-inverse .nav .active > a:focus,
.navbar-inverse .nav .current_page_item a,
.navbar-inverse .nav .current_page_item a:hover,
.navbar-inverse .nav .current_page_item a:focus,
.navbar-inverse .nav .current_page_parent a,
.navbar-inverse .nav .current_page_parent a:hover,
.navbar-inverse .nav .current_page_parent a:focus {
Note: As you make more WordPress themes, you should look into using the custom Menus ability that WordPress includes.  You can read about them here andhere.
In the next section we will create the template for the pages and posts.

Creating the Page, Post and Post Listing Templates

Pages Template

Start with taking the index.php file and saving it as page.php. This will serve as the as the template for our pages.
First we should change the text that reads “Sorry, no posts matched your criteria.” to read “Sorry, this page does not exist.”
Next, we are going to add some Bootstrap markup to create a two column layout.
Modify your page.php template to include the Bootstrap “row” class and a “span8” and “span4” class. We’ll use the span8 for the page content and the span4 for sidebar content.
<?php get_header(); ?>

<div class="row">
  <div class="span8">

 <?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>
  <h1><?php the_title(); ?></h1>
    <?php the_content(); ?>

 <?php endwhile; else: ?>
  <p><?php _e('Sorry, this page does not exist.'); ?></p>
 <?php endif; ?>

  </div>
  <div class="span4">

  </div>
</div>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
Since we are going to be using the sidebar on some of the other templates we are going to take advantage WordPress’s get_sidebar() tag that works in the same way as the get_header() and get_footer() tags.
To do this we are going to create a new file called sidebar.php and paste in the following code
<h2>Sidebar</h2>

Sidebar Template

We will come back and modify this code later, but this will work for now.
Now go back to the page.php file and add in the get_sidebar() code inside the “span4” div like this.
<?php get_header(); ?>

<div class="row">
  <div class="span8">

 <?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>
  <h1><?php the_title(); ?></h1>
    <?php the_content(); ?>

 <?php endwhile; else: ?>
  <p><?php _e('Sorry, this page does not exist.'); ?></p>
 <?php endif; ?>

  </div>
  <div class="span4">
 <?php get_sidebar(); ?> 
  </div>
</div>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
If we take a look at one of our pages now we can see that we have the title, main content, and sidebar.
Our page template is looking pretty good. Let’s move on now to the News page.

Posts Listing Page

The news page is going to work a little differently because it needs to list out posts, not just page content. There are a couple ways to go about this, but we are going to take a very simple approach here.
To start save the page.php template as home.php. In WordPress, the home.php template is reserved for the page that lists out posts. In our case this is the template we will use for the News page.
The first thing we are going to do is hardcode an h1 tag into the top of the main content area that says News. This tag should be placed above the loop.
On this home.php template, the loop is going to loop through all of the blog posts. So, instead of using an h1 tag for the post titles we are going to change it to an h2, since the h1 will be used for the title of the page.
We are also going to add a new tag, the_permalink(), that we can use with an anchor tag to link from the main news page to individual news articles. This is what the markup with around the_title() should look like now.
<h2><a href="<?php the_permalink(); ?>"><?php the_title(); ?></a></h2>
Let’s make a few other tweaks to this template before we move one. First let’s change the no results text to say “Sorry, there are no posts.”
Next, we’re going to remove the post content from appearing. We’ll just list out the titles as links to the pages and let the viewers read the content after they click on the post title.
In the place of the content we’re going to add in the date of the post using a tag called the_time(). If you’ve used PHP before you may recognize you may recognize this tag. This tag is able be customized to display the date in pretty much any format you want. We are going to display the date in the following format:
Monday, October 1st, 2012
To do this we are going to use the_time() function customized like this:
the_time('l, F jS, Y')
Finally we are going to add an hr tag under the date separate the posts from each other.
The final home.php template should look like this.
<?php get_header(); ?>

<div class="row">
  <div class="span8">
    <h1>News</h1>

    <?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>
    <h2><a href="<?php the_permalink(); ?>"><?php the_title(); ?></a></h2>
    <p><em><?php the_time('l, F jS, Y'); ?></em></p>
    <hr>

    <?php endwhile; else: ?>
      <p><?php _e('Sorry, there are no posts.'); ?></p>
    <?php endif; ?>

  </div>
  <div class="span4">

    <?php get_sidebar(); ?>   

  </div>
</div>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
Now, in order to get the News page to display properly we will have to go back into the admin area to back to where we set the Home page to display as the front page. Navigate to the admin area and go to Settings > Reading. Select the News page from the dropdown next to the “Posts page:” label and click “Save Changes.”
Once this is done you should see should see the Posts listed when you go back to the News page.

Single Post Template

This leaves us one template left to do and that is the template to display individual posts. This template is going to look very similar to our page.php template so we’ll start by opening the page.php file and saving it as single.php. In WordPress, the single.php template is used to display individual posts.
The first change we will make here are to include the date of the post underneath of the title. We’ll use the same code as before.
<p><em><?php the_time(‘l, F jS, Y’); ?></em></p>
The biggest change we are going to make to this template is adding the ability to post comments. While there is a lot of complex code that is required behind the scenes to make comments work, it is actually pretty easy to add comments to the template thanks to the comments_template() tag.
Once we add this below the content tag we will have comments enabled on our posts. We’ll also add an hr tag above the comments to help separate them from the post content. Our final single.php template should look like this.
<?php get_header(); ?>

<div class="row">
  <div class="span8">

 <?php if ( have_posts() ) : while ( have_posts() ) : the_post(); ?>
  <h1><?php the_title(); ?></h1>
  <p><em><?php the_time('l, F jS, Y'); ?></em></p>

    <?php the_content(); ?>

    <hr>
  <?php comments_template(); ?>

 <?php endwhile; else: ?>
  <p><?php _e('Sorry, this page does not exist.'); ?></p>
 <?php endif; ?>

  </div>
  <div class="span4">
 <?php get_sidebar(); ?>   
  </div>
</div>

<?php get_footer(); ?>
We now have all of our basic template files complete. In this last section we’re going to clean up a few loose ends and finish up our basic responsive Bootstrap WordPress theme.

Finishing the Theme

Updates to the Header

One of the first details we need to take care of are the title tags. Title tags are an important part of a web site, especially in regards to its search engine optimization. Ideally we want to have the name of the page or post in the title as well as the name of the site.
We can accomplish this using a WordPress tag called the wp_title() tag. We will customize this tag slightly in the following way
wp_title('|',1,'right');
This will give us the page or post title we want, but we still want to have the name of the site as well. We can get this by using the bloginfo() function we used before but this time like this bloginfo(“name”). If we use these two together with the title tag we will get this.
<title><?php wp_title('|',1,'right'); ?> <?php bloginfo('name'); ?></title>
Add this to the header.php file in place of the current title tag. You should now see the title tags appearing at the top of the page exactly how we want.
Next we are going to make the site title in the top left of the site match our site name and make it link to the homepage. This is how we will do that.
We will take this:
<a class="brand" href="#">Project name</a>
And convert it to this:
<a class="brand" href="<?php echo site_url(); ?>"><?php bloginfo('name'); ?></a>
You can see we are using bloginfo(“name”) that we used in the title tag. The site_url() tag is new, but it does exactly what you think it would. It creates a link to the homepage of the site.
Now that we have created a link to the homepage we can remove the “Home” link from the page listing. We can do this by adding an extra option to the wp_list_pages() function. This option is the “exclude” option. In order to use it we have to have to look up the id of the Home page. To do this we navigate to the page in the admin area and look in the URL of the page.
Screenshot highlighting where to find the page id in the url
In this example the Home page has an ID of 4. It may be different for your site. Once you have this ID, update the wp_list_pages() function like so (replacing the 4 with the ID of your homepage):
wp_list_pages(array('title_li' => '', 'exclude' => 4))
Note: If you use this in future themes you will need to update the ID with the ID of the new homepage.

Widgetizing the Sidebar

The last major step we are going to take is to do what’s called Widgetizing our theme. What this will do is allow us to use WordPress widgets in our sidebar.
To do this we will need to add some more code to our functions.php file.
Open the functions.php file and add the following code to the file.
<?php 

function wpbootstrap_scripts_with_jquery()
{
 // Register the script like this for a theme:
 wp_register_script( 'custom-script', get_template_directory_uri() . '/bootstrap/js/bootstrap.js', array( 'jquery' ) );
 // For either a plugin or a theme, you can then enqueue the script:
 wp_enqueue_script( 'custom-script' );
}
add_action( 'wp_enqueue_scripts', 'wpbootstrap_scripts_with_jquery' );

if ( function_exists('register_sidebar') )
 register_sidebar(array(
  'before_widget' => '',
  'after_widget' => '',
  'before_title' => '<h3>',
  'after_title' => '</h3>',
 ));
?>
Once this is setup we are going to go back to our sidebar.php and replace the static content with the code that will allow us to update the sidebar with widgets via the admin area.
Update the sidebar.php so it looks like this:
<?php if ( !function_exists('dynamic_sidebar') || !dynamic_sidebar() ) : ?>
<?php endif; ?>

Download the Theme

If you had trouble following along with this tutorial, you can download the finished theme here:  wpbootstrap.zip

Congratulations!

At this point we have a simple theme that you can begin customizing with your own content and styles.  You can add any of your custom CSS to the styles.css file in your theme folder.
You should also feel comfortable editing the basic templates that we’ve created here on your own.  If you’re interested, check out the list of all the possibleWordPress Template Tags that you can use on your site.
If this was your first WordPress theme, you’re off to a good start.  As we move on learning about building WordPress themes, we will learn how to make more and more things dynamic and customizable from the admin area, instead of in the code.
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